"The man who does not wear a tie cannot speak English."
Translation:넥타이를 매지 않는 남자는 영어를 못합니다.
-지 않다 is an auxiliary verb which nature (active or descriptive) depends on the attached verb.
• Action verb + -지 않다 => Action verb. In such case, when used as determiner, both -지 않은 and -지 않는 are valid.
-지 않은 is used to describe a past action and -지 않는, a present action.
• Descriptive verb + -지 않다 => Descriptive verb. In such case, when used as determiner, only -지 않은 is acceptable since descriptive verbs/adjectives describe a pre existing state.
In this example, the main verb is 매다 (to wear), an action verb. So,
매지 않은 (past action) = that did not wear/has(-ve) not been wearing
매지 않는 (present action) = that do (-es) not wear / is (are) not wearing
man that does not wear a tie = 넥타이를 매지 않는 남자
(1) With the use of the negation "-지 않다",
• in the present tense, the abdominal adjective would be: V-지 않는 or AdjV-지 않은
• in the past tense, V / AdjV-지 않은
(2) 매다, to wear (to tie) is a verb. So,
매지않는 - who is (are) not wearing / who does (do) not wear
매지않은 = did not wear a tie / was (were) not wearing a tie
In this instance, DLG specifically use the simple present who does not so the translation "매지 않는" is correct.
If on the other hand, the example used the gerund man not wearing a tie or man without a tie then "매지않은" applied.
Although 않다 is a stative verb, "-지 않다" can be both active and stative depending on the type of verb attached to it:
Verb +지 않다, active verb while
Adjectival/Descriptive Verb +지 않다 is stative.