"Cows don't wear hats."
Translation:Kühe tragen keine Hüte.
You are learning the case called accusative, let's see how accusative-endings work:
- Der Mann trägt keinen Hut. masculine word
- Der Mann trägt keine Tasche. feminine word
- Der Mann trägt kein T-Shirt. neuter word
- Der Mann trägt keine Hüte/Taschen/T-Shirts. plural
For a complete overview, I add the case nominative. ("Hut, Tasche and T-Shirt" stay in accusative.):
- Kein Mann trägt einen Hut. masculine word
- Keine Frau trägt eine Tasche. feminine word
- Kein Pferd trägt ein T-Shirt. neuter word
You use kein when the pronoun for a word is das, keine when its die, and keinen/kein when its der. Ex: Das Buch=kein buch
Why duolingo for phone do not explain the difference between words? For computer it is perfect but for cellphone...
I think that only works if you are setting up a contrast: Kühe tragen Hüte nicht, sie fressen sie. "Cows don't wear hats; (instead,) they eat them." So, if you're specifically negating the verb (but not the rest of the sentence).
In general, use kein/keine/keinen etc. if the object is an indefinite noun, whether singular or plural.
Fantastic! I was wondering about the difference between when to use "nicht" versus "kein/keine/keinen". That makes sense now.
I vaguely remember that similarity when I took French in High School. Honestly, I should probably brush up on that since I took it for so long and then work on German since the conjugation and use of verbs, nouns, etc is very similar.
You were very helpful! I took a screencap of your answer so I can transcribe it into my notebook later. I hope that's acceptable for me to do. ☺
OK, so if the context of the English sentence has not been provided, why not to accept this translation also? Both seem to be valid translations in general...
The translation with "nicht" is only correct, if a second part of the sentence is following. Since there is no such part here, it is plainly wrong.
To my knowledge, "tragen keine Hute" means "wear no has" rather than "do not wear hats"
(1) Cats don't like water - Katzen mögen Wasser nicht
(2) Cows don't wear hats - Kühe tragen keine Hüte
(3) Fish don't drink orange juice - Fische trinken keinen orangensaft
Wondering why (2) and (3) can't be like (1)
Normally, (1) should be "Katzen mögen kein Wasser" as well. In this case your answer is indeed not completely wrong. There are situations where you could hear this. But I would not recommend learning that, because the "rules" (in fact it is more like a gut feeling here) are too complicated to be explained here.
I am not an expert when it comes to german, but in my own understanding, kein is used with nouns while nicht is used with verbs and adjectives.
For example:<h1>ich esse gern nicht.</h1>
I don't like eating
(Verb=esse)<h1>Dein hund ist nicht schnell</h1>
Your dog is not fast
(Adj= schnell)<h1>Das ist kein vogel</h1>
That is not a bird
This is based on my perspective.
- Ich esse nicht gern. (word order)
- Dein Hund ist nicht schnell. (all nouns are capitalised in German)
- Das ist kein Vogel. (ditto)
- You did not capitalise the nouns Kühe and Hüte
- The verb tragen is not in the second position of the sentence, right after the subject Kühe
- indefinite nouns such as Hüte are generally negated with kein rather than nicht
So you get: Kühe tragen keine Hüte.
The sie form is tragen, not trägen, without the vowel change for the du and er, sie, es forms.
Beyond that, though, Kühe tragen Hüte nicht sounds to me as if you're negating the verb -- "What cows do with hats is not wear them, but actually ....". So it feels a little incomplete to me without the replacement.
"Cows don't wear hats, they eat them", for example, could be Kühe tragen Hüte nicht, [sondern] sie essen sie.
And if you moved the nicht, you could negate the noun: Kühe tragen nicht Hüte, sondern Sonnenbrillen "Cows don't wear hats, but (rather) sunglasses." or "It's not hats that cows wear but sunglasses."
Now, how to know whether a german word is feminine or masculine, in order to use kein, keine and keinen properly?
By looking it up in the dictionary and then learning the noun together with its gender.
In general, there's no way to guess -- you just have to learn it along with the word.
(Just as you have to learn the plural together with the word -- it's not generally possible to guess correctly what the plural form will be as it's not as simply as "just add -s" as in English. Sometimes, there are even multiple plurals for the same word, with different meanings.)
from what i read kein is used for nouns and when there is indefinite article.. nicht is used for negating verbs adjectives and elements other than nouns...here we are negating a verb why did we use kein???
You quoted the rule quite correctly. "kein" is used to negate nouns with either an indefinite article or no article at all (in most cases the accusative object of the sentence). Here you negate "Hüte" ("hats").
To see this, try to give counterexamples: The most probable meaning of the sentences is something like "cows don't wear hats, but funny caps (or nothing at all)", and not "cows don't wear hats, they eat them". The latter would indeed be "Kühe tragen Hüte nicht, sondern sie essen sie" in German.
Simply because then the English sentence should have been "The cows don't wear hats".
Because the verb form has to match the subject.
trage is for a first person singular subject: ich trage = I am wearing
tragt is for a second person plural subject: ihr tragt = you [several people] are wearing
tragen is for a first or third person plural subject. wir tragen = we are wearing; sie tragen = they are wearing.
Kühe is plural, and since it is neither speaker nor listener, it's third person -- thus you need the third-person plural verb form tragen: Kühe tragen "Cows wear".
Because "Kühe" is plural, it is treated as a "They=Sie" word? I would have thought that it would be treated more as an "It=Es" word. Is the plural of an "Es" word naturally a "Sie" word?
I don't quite understand what you mean. Every plural is "sie". This is independent of the gender of the word. This is quite similar to English. It doesn't matter, if it is "he", "she" or "it", the plural is always "they".
That makes no sense.
First of all, the verb tragen is in the third position (after keine Hüte and Kühe), instead of in the second position where it belongs.
Secondly, putting keine Hüte first makes little sense because the absense of something can't really be a useful topic. "Let me tell you about no hats: it's what cows wear."
If there aren't any hats, you can't really talk about them.
So Kühe tragen keine Hüte is pretty much the only order those words can reasonably go in.
I cannot discuss with you about German here, and I think you are correct.
But in communication in general, the absence of something for sure can be and is important. For example, 0 is just as important as 1 in the digital binary world. An email that I didn't receive may have an effect on me. Because such person didn't come in time for our meeting, I went away. And so on.
I wrote "Kühe tragen nie Hüte" - is this wrong because I wrote "Cows never wear hats" instead of "Cows don't wear hats?"
'Nicht" is used when negating a noun with definite article and 'kein' is used when negating an indefinite article. Think k+ein when determining which one is used.
Can you not think of it as negating the verb tragen? I think of it as they do not WEAR hats, not they do not wear HATS. ( as if they would wear something else.)