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I work in the field of climate science. I have seen the word 'climatology' used in two different ways. The first one means the same thing as 'climate science', and I think is the meaning used here for 기후학. The second meaning of 'climatology' is the average weather for each month of the year, averaged over many years. Does 기후학 also mean 'climatology' in this second sense? If not, what word would be used instead?
This is not exactly what you asked about, but it might be slightly helpful nonetheless... that in this dictionary it says that 기후 (氣候) means climate understood as:
(1) The weather condition including temperature, rain, snow, wind, etc.
(2) Average weather seen in a certain area over a period of several years
As for 기후학 itself I've seen it translated only as climatology, climate science, without specifying if the subject of the discipline is (1), or (2), or both...