In English, the field of Meteorology includes the study of both the weather and the climate. I think the word 기후학 would mostly be the study of the climate.
I work in the field of climate science. I have seen the word 'climatology' used in two different ways. The first one means the same thing as 'climate science', and I think is the meaning used here for 기후학. The second meaning of 'climatology' is the average weather for each month of the year, averaged over many years. Does 기후학 also mean 'climatology' in this second sense? If not, what word would be used instead?