Translation:Ik kan de deksel niet vinden.
No, as you're not translating "can" in that case. Your Dutch sentence is technically not wrong, but like the English sentence without "can": "I don't find the lid", I have a hard time imagining how this sentence would be used.
I suppose you could use it if you're telling a story and are using the present instead of past tense, which is possible both in English and Dutch to make the story more engaging. It would then be an alternative to "I didn't find the lid"/ik vond de deksel niet.
This is a very specific case though, so the simple answer is: no, you have to use kan in your translation.
Thank you for the detailed answer. I fully understand the necessity of using 'can' but I was kinda led to assume that a similar usage in Italian would also work for Dutch as well (I see you take Italian too). You can say 'Non trovo il coperchio' to also mean 'I can't find the lid'.