Correct in meaning, maybe but grammatically inaccurate.
As the example shows:
한국어를 잘 배워요 -> 한국어 (= Korean) is the object complement of 배워요 (= I learn).
My guess is your suggestion would be better translated as:
If that woman teaches Korean, I learn it well =
그 여자가 한국어를 가르치면 잘 배워요.
where 한국어 is the object complement of 가르치다 (= teach)
Yes. It appears that Koreans use (으)면 for both if-conditional clauses and if/when-time clauses, to speak about present event.
The distinction is perhaps in the tense used in the main clause.
With the (으)면, when(-ever) time clause, the present is used in the main clause; Future, propositive and imperative with (으)면, if-conditional clause.