"Do you like the taste of chocolate?"
Sometimes '的' may not be necessary to be used. There is no difference between: 巧克力味道巧克力的味道 From my point of view, it also seems to be extra words that need to be eliminate.
In my opinion, there is a distinction between the two phrases. 巧克力的味道 is related to taste OF the chocolate, or any chocolate in general. However, 巧克力味道 can imply a chocolate flavour. For example you can ask if someone likes chocolate flavour when buying them an ice-cream cone, and ask them 你喜欢巧克力味道吗？
As a native speaker, we would not understand that you are asking about the taste of a particular/ any chocolate if you do not include 的