"The book is not stylish."
이/가 = yes, subject markers
책이 지루하다 = The book is boring. 내가 용의자다 = I am the suspect.
은/는 = it depends - sometimes yes, other times no
은/는 is often used to emphasize or compare 2 or more.
‘인생은 짧고 예술은 길다" = Art is long, life is short, "
이 방은 깨끗은 하지만, 너무 좁다. = This room is indeed clean yet too small.
이 방은 깨끗하지만 너무 좁다 = This room is clean but too small.
내 친구는 책은 많다 = My friend has indeed many books. (emphasis is made on books)
내 친구는 책이 많다 = My friend has many books. (No emphasis)
내 아내는 크지만 소심하다 = My wife is big yet timid.
내 아내는 크기는 하지만 소심하다 = My wife is surely big yet timid.
이 the determiner is completely different from the subject particle 이/가. When it appears before a noun or noun phrase, 이 is a determiner meaning "this". As a particle appended to the end of a noun, 이/가 marks the sentence subject. Just because two words sound the same doesn't mean they're the same word.
The two sounds are allophonic in many English dialects, meaning they don't play a role in distinguishing between words. If you don't hear a difference between ㅏa and ㅓeo, you probably speak a dialect of English where cot and caught are pronounced the same.
ㅏ sounds like the a in father or spa, while ㅓ is somewhere between the aw in crawl and the u in mud.
This vowel merger is actually relatively new, having cropped up just within the last couple centuries. The Received Pronunciation dialect of UK English still distinguishes the two afaik, and some older recordings of US and Canadian speakers will demonstrate a difference as well. Without the merger, "caught" has a more open, rounder vowel sound than "cot", and tends to be slightly longer as well.
So confused when it comes to syllables with the final sound of 'ㅅ'
Sometimes it is pronounced, other times it is not, sometimes it seems to be pronunced like a 't', and other times it is ran into the following syllable... Any help here? Or maybe a link to some resource that explains this?
Like other consonants, ㅅ has a different pronunciation when it is a final consonant than when it is an initial consonant. Its default final consonant pronunciation is ㄷ. This sound is romanized as "t", but should be pronounced as a stop with no airflow after the tongue has touched the top of the mouth. There are some cases where the pronunciation changes further:
When the ㅅis followed by a vowel, the pronunciation pairs the consonant with the vowel.
When ㅅ is followed by a nasal (ㄴ, ㅁ), like other ㄷ-sounding final consonants, its pronunciation changes to ㄴ.
There are some exceptions that arise due to a common contraction like 맛있다 and 맛없다.
Here are some examples with the verb 웃다, which means "to smile, laugh".
The citation form 웃다 is pronounced as 'ut-da'.
The casual form 웃어요 is pronounced as 'u-seo-yo'.
The adjective modifer form 웃는 is pronounced as 'un-neun'.