Not always definite, (and take what i say lightly because I only started out today) but as far as pronouns go with "a" and "the" it's just like English. He is masculine, she is feminine, and they is neutral and they're all referring to someone but refer to gender.
Ein = masc and/or neutral Eine = fem
Der = masc Die = fem Das = neutral
Sie = fem and/or neutral Er = masc
Can't always tell with words like "the ball" which you just learn, but with things like girls and boys you'll catch on with time.. and to note, "ball" is masculine for some reason??
All nouns have a grammatical gender -- masculine, feminine, or neuter.
The grammatical gender does not necessarily have anything to do with natural gender (male, female, not alive).
das Mädchen "the girl" refers to female children but the noun has neuter grammatical gender.
die Person "the person" refers to persons whether male or female, but the noun is always feminine.
der Löffel "the spoon" refers to an inanimate object which is neither male nor female, but the word has masculine grammatical gender.
Learn the grammatical gender together with the word, as it's generally arbitrary.
Can you say der/die Kind if you know it's a boy or a girl?
The word Kind is always neuter.
I know there are Junge and Mädchen but i think they are for more grown children. Am i wrong?
I would say you are.
A 1-year-old can be ein Mädchen or ein Junge, as can a 17-year-old. And both the 1-year-old and the 17-year-old can be called ein Kind.
If anything, it's the other way around: I would say that mein Vater hat vier Kinder (my father has four children) but none of them are Mädchen or Jungen since we are all grown up now.
i.e. Kind can mean "person under 18" and also "immediate descendant" while Junge, Mädchen can only mean "male/female person under 18".
Every noun in German has a grammatical gender. This is not connected in any way to natural genders, you can take it as being arbitrary. And the word "Kind" is neuter. Like e.g. "Wasser" ("water") and "Buch" ("book"), whereas e.g. "Baum" ("tree") is msculine and "Schüssel" ("bowl") are feminine.
How do i know if '' Mädchen '' is plural or singular?
Countable singular words need a determiner of some kind before them -- an article, a possessive, etc.
So if there is no determiner, it has to be plural.
And if there is a determiner, the form of that determiner will tell you whether it's singular or plural.
For example, with a definite article, you have das Mädchen (singular) versus die Mädchen (plural).
With a negative indefinite article, you have kein Mädchen (singular) versus keine Mädchen (plural).
And so on.
Junge is not a neuter word; it is masculine.
Mädchen is a neuter word because of the ending -chen.
In general, the grammatical gender of a word need not have anything to do with the natural gender.
Another example is die Person which is feminine, even though a person can be male or female.
It is not the case that "das" is reserved for inanimate objects. Grammatical genders are categories not related to any natural gender. They are just assigned to nouns. Every noun has a grammatical gender that you need to learn together with the noun. "Baum" ("tree") for instance is masculine, whereas "Mädchen" ("girl") is neuter.
Where der n where das used
For each noun that you learn in German, you also need to learn its grammatical gender -- whether it's masculine (a der word), feminine (a die word), or neuter (a das word). You generally can't guess and so you must learn it by heart.
Tip: don't learn "child = Kind"; instead learn "the child = das Kind" so that you will know that Kind is a das word.
All German nouns can be grammatically masculine, feminine, or neuter -- including inanimate objects.
In general, there's no "reason" behind the grammatical gender of a given noun; we just say it the way we learned it from our parents.
To a German child, die Sonne (the sun) is feminine and der Mond (the moon) is masculine, but to a French child, it would be just the opposite (le soleil, la lune). Their grammatical gender is not assigned using any objective universal logic; it's just a result of the history of the language.
So the fact that Löffel (spoon), for example, is masculine is just a fact that you have to learn when you learn the word.
Nouns referring to humans often have a grammatical gender matching the natural gender (i.e. masculine nouns for male humans, feminine nouns for female humans), but even that is not absolute -- for example, das Mädchen "the girl" is grammatically neuter and die Person "the person" is grammatically always feminine even if the person is male.
Why does it tell me the correct word and when i put it in it tells me another word and says im wrong?
Impossible to say based only on your comment.
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So why is The Child 'Das Kind'
What kind of explanation are you expecting, other than "because that's how you say it in German"?
There's no reason why the German word for, say, tree is Baum rather than Fitzelplutzer. Words are arbitrary.
Could you Please put Icelandic on Here?
Nobody who reads this sentence discussion has any influence over which languages Duolingo adds in which order.