"Our child is much smarter than yours!"
Translation:Naše dítě je mnohem chytřejší než vaše!
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Yes, you need a word that compares two quantities, not a word that measures a quantity.
Words: hodně, moc, mnoho tell that you have a lot or much of something.
But: o hodně (chytřejší), o moc ..., mnohem ..., více ... add additional strength to the comparative adjective or adverb (here "chytřejší").
Hullo. You say mnohem is a comparative adverb, but surely the use of "much" here to modify "smarter" makes it an adjective? Ultimately in this sentence both these words are modifying "child", not "is". Though I appreciate that "much" can equally be part of an adverbial phrase. (e.g. I ran much faster)
No, adverbs are the parts of speech that modify adjectives (or verbs). Mnohem/much is an adverb that modifies an adjective (chytřejší/smarter).
Take the dictionary definition of much at https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/much
a(1) : to a great degree or extent : considerably much happier
You can have a "much happier boy", "mnohem šťastnější chlapec". The adjective modifies the noun, but the adverb modifies the adjective. "much boy" would be ungrammatical.
My Chambers (English) Dictionary also includes one meaning of "adverb" as a modifier of an adjective in some circumstances. I was not aware of that - in my time at school lessons "adverb" was only used in the sense of verb modifier. I think I can safely claim that English speakers generally would think that to be the situation. So they would also think that "much", used as a comparative modifier as in the context of this exercise, is an adjective, with the corresponding agreement. It would be helpful if you could elaborate the rules for word endings of "mnoho-" when used in this way.
First I will note that in general you can recognize adverbs by asking How? In which way?
How is it done? Well.
How happier is the boy? Much happier.
Wiktionary notes: "Adverbs comprise a fundamental category of words in most languages. In English, adverbs are typically formed from adjectives by appending -ly and are used to modify verbs, verb phrases, adjectives, other adverbs, and entire sentences, but rarely nouns or noun phrases."
You could indeed compare quantities using the "mnoho" pronoun. However, you have to use "o mnoho" - literally "by much". That is the accusative case of "mnoho".
Naše dítě je o mnoho chytřejší než vaše.
The "mnohem" adverb may originally be the instrumental case of mnoho, but it became an independent adverb https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/mnohem