"Αναφέρομαι σε εκείνο."
Translation:I refer to that.
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Again, this seems like an active construction. I'm confused how this is a passive sentence. The subject (I) is performing the verb upon the object (that one). Are there simply some verbs that always have passive endings even if they are not used in a passive manner? Like χρειάζομαι for example?
It's because "passive voice" means a different thing in Greek than it does in English. Greek verbs fall into the active or passive voice category based on their ending. It just happens that we call these categories "voices". This is how voice works in Greek grammar: an active voice verb means that the subject of the verb acts, while in passive voice the subject receives the action or is affected by it.
(Η ενεργητική φωνή δηλώνει ότι το υποκείμενο του ρήματος (πρόσωπο ή πράγμα) δρα, ενώ η παθητική φωνή δηλώνει ότι το υποκείμενο δέχεται την ενέργεια του ρήματος ή επηρεάζεται από αυτή. Το άμεσο αντικείμενο της ενεργητικής αντιστοιχεί στο υποκείμενο της παθητικής, ενώ το υποκείμενο της ενεργητικής αντιστοιχεί στο ποιητικό αίτιο της παθητικής. Με την ενεργητική σύνταξη εξαίρεται η δράση του υποκειμένου, ενώ με την παθητική σύνταξη εξαίρεται το αποτέλεσμα της ενέργειας του υποκειμένου. Source)
So when I think, I am the recipient of my own action (σκέφτομαι, same with θυμάμαι, γίνομαι, πλένομαι). It comes back to me, regardless of any object (e.g. σκέφτομαι τον φίλο μου).
I think you'll agree that it all makes sense how passive voice in English is translated only by passive voice verbs in Greek.
Greek verbs also fall into one of four categories, active, passive, middle or neutral moods, according to criteria I am not sure I understand, let alone can explain! Again, mood here is a different thing from, say, subjunctive mood. Then, there are categories that have to do with structure, taking one or two objects etc.
I can only say I sympathise, understanding what the passive voice is in English was not very easy, but it is because the two languages use the same terms to describe different things.
The moderator's response, D_.., was helpful, as always. I'm not sure if this is helpful, but modern Gk (MG) is complicated by its inheritance from ancient Gk (AG), which had "middle" voice, on the one hand, in which the subject acts on itself, e.g., λούομαι, "I wash myself," and then passive voice which looks like middle voice, on the other hand; and finally (we need a third hand), there were deponent verbs that had active meaning but only middle or passive forms. See Smyth §356. Modern Gk grammars will sometimes refer to "medio-passive" verbs that combine morphology (forms) and semantic (meaning) characteristics of ancient Gk middle and passive voices. Source: Mackridge, Modern Gk Language, 85. The latter writes, "The morphological categories (voice) do not always coincide with the semantic categories... and there are active verbs in MG which do not denote action on the part of the subject, just as there are so-called 'deponent' verbs which, while they exist only in a passive form, have an active meaning." If you've studied Latin, you are familiar with deponent verbs that look passive but are active in meaning. A famous Latin deponent is sequor, "to follow." A 'non sequitur' is something that "does not follow." It's not a passive (though it looks like one). Here's a link to a modern Gk verb explanation. You can search for "deponent" to see a list of common deponent verbs, including αισθάνομαι, "I feel": https://moderngreekverbs.com/home.html After having said all that for context, this verb has an active voice but with a different meaning ("to mention/report") than the middle ("to refer"). So it's not a true deponent (no active voice form), although as noted above, modern Gk has those, so it's not entirely a non sequitur, and not really a passive, so αναφέρομαι is a middle, or what is sometimes called "medio-passive."