Quote from a native: Different question, this would mean "how did they come up with a name like that?"
It's a common mistake in English with second speakers.
What is the name for...?, or, what is it called....? But, How do you say...?, how do you pronounce...?
It isn't correct English. You can say How do you call the dog? I call the dog by whistling. To ask how you call this disease sounds like you want to call the disease to you.
A correct way of using "call" here would be :
What is this disease called ?