Nominative, Accusative or Dative !!!
Can someone help me know how to study different cases of a statement like Nominative, Accusative and Dative exclusively. Here with the level upgrade as we learn, normally we find sentences that covers such cases, but how do I judge and know how exactly it works with German sentence structure! Any help in this will be highly appreciated :)
You don't even have to know what they mean. All that is required is to know what preposition that comes before the given article. For example:
The words durch, für, gegen, ohne, um makes it automatically Accustative
aus, außer, bei, gegenüber, mit, nach, zeit, von, zu makes it automatically Dative
Well, yes, but that's not the end of the story! There are also the "two-way prepositions" in German --- sometimes followed by a dative form and sometimes by an accusative form: an, auf, hinter, in, neben, über, vor, and zwischen, for example.
Similarly, there are a significant number of verbs that are always used with a particular case.
Interesting.. did you find this information at a particular website, or link you could share?
No, I just know it, although internet surfing should turn up the same result. I was trained as an interpreter (German) when in the Army, so I'm very comfortable with the language and have often been taken for a native speaker.
an, auf, hinter, in, neben, über, vor, and zwischen= If you go any direction it is accusative, if you stay it is dative E.g. Ich gehe hinter DEN Baum, ein Vogel fliegt auf den Baum, er spaziert über den Fluss.....Dativ: Ich bin hinter DEM Baum, auf dem Baum sitzt ein Vogel, die Stadt ist über dem Fluss gelegen (the town doesn't run away)....It's a bit difficult to explain it.
I'm sure you can find that elsewhere here, but in short.
Nominaive - subject of the sentence
Accusative - direct object this is the one the verb relates to
Dative - indirect object
sub pred indObj dObj
But only the second position of the predicate i.e the conjugated verb is fixed. All other parts can change position.
Der Mann gibt dem Kind einen Apfel
subj pred indObj dObj
Der Mann gibt einen Apfel dem Kind
Dem Kind gibt der Mann einen Apfel
Einen Apfel gibt der Mann dem Kind
You see the nominative is either before or after the verb.
Furthermore there are prepositions which need certain cases.
I want to add, when you get more experienced in german. There are several more functions of the cases than just those. Also the rules for word order are more complex (specially when considering pronouns).