https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

Differences between Brazilian and European Portuguese

Even though there has been multiple requests of having a new course: European Portuguese, the majority of BP sentences are exactly the same as EP.

I have used IPA to distinguish the differences in phonology
IPA

PHONOLOGY

The main issue between BP and EP is phonology and because of that, there are some difficulties in intelligibility. However, due to a high exposure of BP in Portugal, we (the Portuguese) have an easier time understanding BP rather than the other way around. The biggest differences in phonology has to be the prosody. What's prosody you may ask? Well, it is basically the way we pronounce the words. BP is more like the other romance languages on that regard, being a syllable-timed language, meaning that, usually, the words are pronounced with the same length in all syllables. EP is a stress-timed language, which means that syllables have different durations in the word. Usually, in a stress-timed language, a process called vowel reduction happens and Portuguese is no exception! Although it also happens in BP, the reduction is far more present in EP, even creating a weird vowel sound that only EP and Korean have it: "E mudo (ɯ̽)". Theoretically it only exists as an unstressed vowel. However, many people pronounce the 'e' in "pelo/pela/pelos/pelas (through the)" with that "E mudo", but usually we just contract it to "p'lo/p'la/p'los/p'las" respectively...

TCH/DJ or T/D?

In BP, before a high vowel, the consonant T becomes TCH and D becomes DJ. In some dialects (the ones that you are most likely to hear). Parts of Northeast and South of Brazil pronounce it like in EP.

Rio de Janeiro: /hi.u dʒi ʒanejɾu/
Quente: /kẽtʃi/

In EP, a T is always pronounced as T and D is always pronounced as D.

Rio de Janeiro: /ʀi.u dʑənəjɾ̥ʷ/
Quente: /kẽtʰ/

S or CH?

In the majority of Brazilian accents, the S is almost always pronounced as an S except between vowels (pronounced as Z). However, in EP, it could be pronounced differently:

Between vowels: Z (same as BP) | Casa (BP: /kaza/, EP: /kazə/)
Before voiceless consonants: SH | Costa (BP: /kɔsta/, EP: /kɔɕtə/)
Before voiced consonants: ZH | Lisboa (BP: /liz.bo.a/, EP: /liʑβoə/)
Final: SH (However, if the next word begins with...)

Vowel: Z | Os olhos (BP: /ujz ɔʎujs/, EP: /uz ɔl̠ʲɕʷ/)
Voiceless consonant: SH | Os carros (BP: /ujs kahujs/, EP: /uɕ kaʀɕʷ/)
Voiced consonant: ZH | Os dedos (BP: /ujz dedujs/, EP: /uʑ dedɕʷ/)

From my knowledge, the carioca accent (Rio de Janeiro) also has this EP way of pronouncing the S's.

Soft consonants?

This also occurs in Spanish. Basically, EP consonants (more specifically: B/D/G) change to a more soft consonant: β/ð/ɣ/.

β: similar to V but without the top teeth touching the bottom lip.
ð: as in English TH in "other"
ɣ: similar to G but without completely blocking air flow on the g.
"É sábado agora"* (BP: /ɛ 'sa.ba.dw a.gɔ.ɾa/, EP: /ɛ 'sa.βə.ðʷ ə.ɣɔ.ɾə/)

Dark L or W?

The consonant L is velarized in EP. This means that, unlike BP where you pronounce "mal" as if it were "mau", you pronounce the L but further back in the mouth. Many English dialects have this L as in "feel".

mal (BP: /maw/, EP: /maɫ̪/)

ÂI or EI?

One big difference between BP and EP are vowel sounds. Some diphthongs are even pronounced differently and there are cases where there is only one vowel sound in BP but it is a diphthong in EP. For example:

cheio (BP: /ʃeju/, EP: /ʃəju/)
coelho (BP: /ku'e.ʎu/, EP: /ku'əj.l̠ʲʷ/)

Are we pronouncing the vowels?

One of the consequences of having vowel reduction is that it could lead to a deletion of vowels. That happens a lot in EP. The phrase: "como é que queres que faça isso, pá?" would be contracted to: "com'é q'quer's q'faça isso, pá?" It's just a common thing in EP, contractions!
"how do you want me to do that, man?"

"E mudo"

The famous European Portuguese vowel… You either pronounce this vowel or you don’t, even if you do pronounce it, it is very short which gives the false impression that you are not pronouncing it. How do you pronounce it? Well, I’m no specialist. However, imagine pronouncing the English vowel ‘oo’ in “book”, but instead of rounding it (which is what you would normal would), “unround” the vowel.

Vowel reduction

It's important to explain this a little bit more and to cover unstressed vowel pronunciation:

  • At the end of a word:

PT: vowel reduction is mandatory:

Vowels "o", "e" and "a" are reduced to "u", "ɯ̽", and "ə", respectively:

"Pato": pronounced /'pa.tu/; "gente": pronounced /'ʑẽ.tɯ̽/ (or eliding the final vowel, as explained previously); "casa": pronounced /'ka.zə/.

BR: vowel reduction is mandatory:

Vowels "o", "e" and "a" are reduced to "u", "i", and "ɐ~ə", respectively:

"Pato": pronounced /'pa.tu/; "gente": pronounced /'ʒẽ.tʃi/; "casa": pronounced /'ka.zɐ/.

PT and BR:

Exceptions: vowels won't be reduced if followed by a consonant other than "s", like "caráter", pronounced /kə'ɾa.tɛɾ/ in Portugal, and /ka'ɾa.teɾ/ in Brazil; and "notável", pronounced /nu'ta.vɛɫ/ in Portugal, and /no'ta.vew/ or /nɔ'ta.vew/ in Brazil.

  • Before the stressed syllable:

PT: vowel reduction is the rule, with exceptions:

The vowels described above are reduced when they happen before the stressed syllable as well:

"Professor": pronounced /pɾu.fɯ̽'soɾ/; "abacaxi": pronounced /ə.bə.kə'ɕi/ (all three "as" pronounced as /ə/).

Exceptions: For some words the reduction doesn't happen, due to etymological reasons, like "corar", pronounced /kɔ'ɾaɾ/ coming from the Latin "colorare" evolving to "coorare" --> "còrar" and "pregar", pronounced /pɾɛ'ɣaɾ/ coming from the Latin "praedicare" evolving to "predecare" --> "preegare" --> "prègar" (recent orthographic agreements removed certain accents marks, turning "còrar" and "prègar" to "corar" and "pregar", respectively).

BR: do not reduce vowels as a rule, reduce in some exceptions, but they are never mandatory, the non-reduction may just sound formal in some words we often reduce. Vowels in unstressed position vary in pronunciation depending on the region:

  1. Northern dialects: vowels "o" and "e" are pronounced open, as /ɔ/ and /ɛ/, making "professor" be pronounced /pɾɔ.fɛ'soh/;

  2. Southern dialects: vowels "o" and "e" are pronounced closed, as /o/ and /e/, making "professor" be pronounced /pɾo.fe'soɾ/;

  3. Northern and Southern dialects: vowel "a" mantains its open pronunciation /a/, being pronounced as /ɐ/ only if before a nasal consonant (m, n or nh). Therefore, "abacaxi" is pronounced as /a.ba.ka'ʃi/, but "manhã" as /mɐ'ɲɐ̃/.

Exceptions: for some words, we reduce, although it's not mandatory, it's just common, like "polícia" being pronounced as /pu'li.sjɐ/ and "estrela" as /is'tɾe.lɐ/. Some others, like "fogão" pronounced as /fu'gɐ̃w̃/ are more common in certain regions, like Rio de Janeiro, and not pleasant to others, where /fo'gɐ̃w̃/ or /fɔ'gɐ̃w̃/ are the standard pronunciations.

These different pronunciations lead to some interesting situations, like "morar" and "murar" being homophones in Portugal (/mu'ɾaɾ/), but not in Brazil (/mo'ɾaɾ/ or /mɔ'ɾah/ for the first and /mu'ɾaɾ/ for the second).

More differences

There are more slight differences, but I would have to go in full linguistic mode, if you wish to know more differences, contact me.


GRAMMAR

There are significant differences between EP and BP when it comes to grammar. However, usually, it is the same, although in colloquial speech things can be very different and look like different languages.

Usage of the gerund

When you want to state a continuous action, in BP you would normally use the gerund but in EP things are different, we use a preposition and the infinitive:
I'm playing

BP: Estou brincando
EP: Estou a brincar (lit. I am to play)

What are you doing?

BP: O que você está fazendo?
EP: O que é que estás a fazer? (lit. What is [it] that [you] are to do?)

Building questions

As you may noticed previously, the way we build questions could be different than the way Brazilians do. Keep in mind that "é que" isn't as foreign to brazilians as you may think, but it's generally omitted. This construction of "é que" (similar to the french "est-ce que") is very popular in colloquial speech, but in formal speech we adopt a more brazilian style. This construction is only valid in WH-questions.
What will we do in the future?

BP: O que faremos no futuro? (Formal in EP)
EP: O que é que faremos no futuro?

Who will be the next one?

BP: Quem será o próximo? (Formal in EP)
EP: Quem é que será o próximo?

Are you the next one?

BP: Você é o próximo? (Formal in EP)
EP: És o próximo?

Usage of personal pronouns
  • EU: Used in both EP and BP. However, in EP, it is usually omitted at all costs. We tend to use in order to give some sort of emphasis.
  • TU: Even though some regions in Brazil use it, they still conjugate it in the third person singular: "Tu é" (This is a mistake in EP). In EP we use it all the time on informal occasions.
  • VOCÊ: Generally used all the time in Brazil. In Portugal it is used for formal occasions. Be careful!! In North of Portugal, many people will get offended if you use "você", they prefer to be treated with "o senhor/a senhora" which is the way Brazilians use to treat each other on a more formal way.
  • ELE/ELA: Same usage. Although in BP they tend to use it more often: “I didn’t see him” – BP: “Não vi ele” – EP: “Não o vi”.
  • NÓS: Same usage, although some brazilians prefer to use "a gente" and conjugated it in the third person singular: "a gente é".
  • VÓS: completely archaic in Brazil. The usage of "vós" is JUST in the northern parts of Portugal.
  • If monarchy was still present in Portugal we would use "vós" towards the king (and we would call the king as "el-rei").
  • It could be used in poetry (just like word order doesn't even exist in some poems...)
  • In religious context (roman catholicism) when talking with god or "god" is speaking to us. In fact, the most used prayer uses "vós": "Pai nosso que estais no céu, santificado seja o vosso nome..."
  • And, for us, Northenhos (lit. northerners), it's not used as much... Especially amongst the youth (I'm no exception). However, we conjugate the verb "ir" with "vós" many times, for example we say: "[Vós] ides aonde?" (Where are you (plural) going?). But don't worry, we will still understand you if you say "[vocês] vão aonde?" (some will even say: "[vocês] vão para onde?")
  • Anyways, in rural areas IT IS VERY COMMON to use "vós"
  • VOCÊS: same usage.
  • ELES/ELAS: same usage.
Mesoclisis

Don't ask me what it means, I just searched for the grammatical name of this Portuguese feature. This only occurs in very formal BP, but still used in colloquial EP.
She would take it

BP: Ela o levaria
EP: Ela levá-lo-ia

They will give it to me

BP: Eles mo darão
EP: Eles dar-mo-ão

Verbs

Verb conjugations are generally the same with some small differences:

  • Past tense (preterite): For example: in BP it is spelt as "amamos" but in EP it is spelt as "amámos". However, due to the 1990 orthographic agreement, it's allowed to spell it as "amamos".
  • The conditional tense is usually called "future of the past" in BP. However, in EP it is classified as a separate mood: "Conditional mood".
  • In EP the subjunctive is called "conjuntivo", whereas in BP they call it "subjuntivo".
  • In BP the future tense and conditional have disappeared quite extensively in colloquial speech. Normally, the future tense is substituted by “ir” + infinitive and the conditional is replaced with the imperfect or “ir” + infinitive. In colloquial EP, the same process is happening. However, every once in a while we do use the correct tenses and in formal speech it is obligatory to use them.

Vocabulary

  • Train - BP: trem | EP: comboio
  • Bus - BP: ônibus | EP: autocarro
  • Ice cream - BP: sorvete | EP: gelado
  • Cup - BP: xícara | EP: chávena
  • Refrigerator - BP: geladeira | EP: frigorífico
  • Brown - BP: marrom | EP: castanho
  • Pineapple - BP: abacaxi | EP: ananás (This is highly debatable)
  • Jellyfish - BP: água-viva | EP: alforreca
  • Nickname - BP: apelido | EP: alcunha
  • Candy - BP: bala | EP: rebuçado
  • Dog - BP: cachorro | EP: cão
  • Lorry - BP: caminhão | EP: camião
  • Mobile phone - BP: celular | EP: telemóvel
  • Team - BP: time | EP: equipa
  • Plumber - BP: encanador | South of Portugal: canalizador | North of Portugal: picheleiro

And there are more and more differences like this, but usually the most basic vocabulary is the same.


I really tried my best and what I have in my brain to this topic, if there is something wrong or something you believe it is useful to add here, don't hesitate to comment. If you wish to contact me, comment below.

vascotuga251

Corrections and small contributions:
Dezo_
LICA98
Febrentu

February 28, 2018

53 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LaurianaB

Wonderful post!! Have my support. Very well-written as well as informative.

Nuno will be thrilled:).

February 28, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

Thank you very much! If you have any question, don't hesitate to ask!

March 1, 2018

[deactivated user]

    This...

    ...is a nice post.

    February 28, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

    Obrigado!

    March 1, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dezo_

    Wow, I guess that covers practically everything one needs to know when learning Portuguese. I am Brazilian and I study phonology as well (amateur study) to improve my pronunciation in English and French, and that is by far one of the best explanations I have seen about the matter. Congratulations, that was awesome!

    There is just one point I would like to add, which I think is very important, and it's about vowel reduction. Vowel reduction is about a change in sound of unstressed vowels in certain environments. In European Portuguese, vowel reduction happens much more often than in Brazil, but there are some features in common. You mentioned vowel reduction, but I think it's important to explain it a little bit more and to cover unstressed vowel pronunciation:

    • At the end of a word:

    PT: vowel reduction is mandatory:

    Vowels "o", "e" and "a" are reduced to "u", "ɯ̽", and "ə", respectively:

    "Pato": pronounced /'pa.tu/; "gente": pronounced /'ʒẽ.tɯ̽/ (or eliding the final vowel, as you explained); "casa": pronounced /'ka.zə/.

    BR: vowel reduction is mandatory:

    Vowels "o", "e" and "a" are reduced to "u", "i", and "ɐ~ə", respectively:

    "Pato": pronounced /'pa.tu/; "gente": pronounced /'ʒẽ.tʃi/; "casa": pronounced /'ka.zɐ/.

    PT and BR:

    Exceptions: vowels won't be reduced if followed by a consonant other than "s", like "caráter", pronounced /kə'ɾa.tɛɾ/ in Portugal, and /ka'ɾa.teɾ/ in Brazil; and "notável", pronounced /nu'ta.vɛɫ/ in Portugal, and /no'ta.vew/ or /nɔ'ta.vew/ in Brazil.

    • Before the stressed syllable:

    PT: vowel reduction is the rule, with exceptions:

    The vowels described above are reduced when they happen before the stressed syllable as well:

    "Professor": pronounced /pɾu.fɯ̽'soɾ/; "abacaxi": pronounced /ə.bə.kə'ʃi/ (all three "as" pronounced as /ə/).

    Exceptions: I don't know exactly if there is a rule for that, maybe due to etymological reasons, but for some words the reduction doesn't happen, like "corar", pronounced /kɔ'ɾaɾ/.

    BR: do not reduce vowels as a rule, reduce in some exceptions, but they are never mandatory, the non-reduction may just sound formal in some words we often reduce. Vowels in unstressed position vary in pronunciation depending on the region:

    1. Northern dialects: vowels "o" and "e" are pronounced open, as /ɔ/ and /ɛ/, making "professor" be pronounced /pɾɔ.fɛ'soh/;

    2. Southern dialects: vowels "o" and "e" are pronounced closed, as /o/ and /e/, making "professor" be pronounced /pɾo.fe'soɾ/;

    3. Northern and Southern dialects: vowel "a" mantains its open pronunciation /a/, being pronounced as /ɐ/ only if before a nasal consonant (m, n or nh). Therefore, "abacaxi" is pronounced as /a.ba.ka'ʃi/, but "manhã" as /mɐ'ɲɐ̃/.

    Exceptions: for some words, we reduce, although it's not mandatory, it's just common, like "polícia" being pronounced as /pu'li.sjɐ/ and "estrela" as /is'tɾe.lɐ/. Some others, like "fogão" pronounced as /fu'gɐ̃w̃/ are more common in certain regions, like Rio de Janeiro, and not pleasant to others, where /fo'gɐ̃w̃/ or /fɔ'gɐ̃w̃/ are the standard pronunciations.

    These different pronunciations lead to some interesting situations, like "morar" and "murar" being homophones in Portugal (/mu'ɾaɾ/), but not in Brazil (/mo'ɾaɾ/ or /mɔ'ɾah/ for the first and /mu'ɾaɾ/ for the second).

    March 22, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

    Amazing and informative reply, I've added this to the main topic (also gave you credits for it) while also updating certain aspects of your post (the only difference really was explaing why certain EP vowels don't reduce, etymology is behind all this :) ) and chaning the ʃ/ʒ to the real european way: ʑ/ɕ (I kept the brazilian ones since you guys have the palato-alveolar consonants while we have the alveolo-palatal consonants)

    March 25, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dezo_

    I had a feeling the non-reduction in Portugal happened for etymological reasons, I think I have already read something about it. I was right!

    About the consonants, I know that in Brazil the use of /ʑ/ and /ɕ/ may also happen, but as far as I'm concerned, that does not represent the standard pronunciation here. I didn't know either that they represent the standard phonemes in Portugal.

    Anyway, I'm glad I could help!

    March 25, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

    The standard pronunciation of European Portuguese states that we use ʃ/ʒ except many dialects (especially among the youth) use ʑ/ɕ. It's just like the case with "ɲ/ʎ", Brazilian Portuguese has the true palatal consonants, we have a more "ny/ly" way of pronouncing them (no wonder why people say we speak russian ._.), being: "n̠ʲ/l̠ʲ" and other ways of representing them are "ɲ̟ or ȵ/ʎ̟ or ȴ"

    March 26, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dezo_

    Good to know. About the palatals /ɲ/ and /ʎ/, they represent the standard pronunciation in Brazil, and are generally used in phonetic transcription, but today a lot of dialects may present both as approximants, the former as /j᷈/ and the latter as /j/. However, /j᷈/ is more common than /j/, which happens only in some words and is stigmatized.

    Therefore, "banho" can be either /'bɐ.ɲu/ or /'bɐ᷈j᷈.u/ (/j᷈/ nasalizes the preceding vowel), and "telha" either /'te.ʎɐ/ or /tej.ɐ/ (creating a homophone with the word "teia"). As I said, the former is more usual and the latter more restricted to some environments, but overall avoided in more educated speech.

    March 26, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dezo_

    And French, where /ʎ/ has also merged with /j/.

    March 26, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

    Interesting, I guess it's a natural tendency for palatal consonants to evolve to a palatal approximant. (looks at spanish)

    March 26, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/blurflux

    In Rio de Janeiro everyone uses [ɕ], [ʑ], [tɕ] and [dʑ]. I wouldn't say our accent is substandard for consonants... Though it does sound thick to non-cariocas when we use those in the codas, particularly the men who lengthen them (and even seem to use some rounding, which the women usually do not). See the accents of Cabo Daciolo and "King Size do Rio de Janeiro".

    September 8, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dezo_

    I think you got the wrong idea. What I meant with my comment was simply that for what I've already researched, the phonemes /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ are the most common in Brazilian dialects rather than /ʑ/ and /ɕ/. The difference, however, is little and many speakers might not even be aware of it.

    I wasn't talking about their uses in codas in a variation of /s/ and /z/. What happens is that a word like "cheio", for example, in Portugal, would be transcribed as /ɕɐj.u/, and in Brazil /ʃej.u/. Despite the phoneme /ɕ/ may also appear in Brazilian dialects, the majority of phonetic transcriptions show /ʃ/ as the standard (and by "standard" I don't mean the correct pronunciation, I mean the way most of the population do).

    September 8, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

    The difference is indeed small. However, in Portugal the "s" sounds evolved to a more relaxed position before a consonant or at the end of a word [ɕ], but in words like "acho" we use [ʃ] since it was deaffricated from [tʃ]. I speak like this but I don't speak the standard dialect, it is different in other dialects, just like throughout the country "asso/aço", the [s] is pronounced the same but in Trás-dos-montes there is a slight difference between "s" and "ç" since the latter deaffricated from [ts]. Cheio would be transcribed as /ʃəju/, saying /ɕəju/ sounds kind of odd in my dialect, again, my dialect isn't the standard one.

    September 9, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/blurflux

    The difference is not that small.

    The alveolo-palatal [ɕ] and [ʑ] are pronounced with a very relaxed tongue, arched fully, with its tip sitting behind the lower teeth, and tend to make the sound of your voice more grave (since the tongue is more retracted, the space given for vowel production is pushed further back in the mouth).

    On the other hand, the palato-alveolar series [ʃ] and [ʒ] are pronounced with a somewhat tense tongue, with its tip positioned either against the mouth opening or behind the upper teeth, you feel a lot more of air passing through your mouth and it requires a little more of muscular force, and generally do not affect the tone of your voice. Try pronouncing the English 'sure!' with a thick carioca/Catalan/Japanese accent and then the normal English pronunciation.

    In my experience, I don't think Brazilians have a very good production of the English /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ at first, but they do for /tʃ/ and /dʒ/, since the initial stop production makes it easier to position your tongue in the right place of articulation.

    The affricate is where I find this distinction even in BP. Change pronounced with a thick Rio de Janeiro accent, at least, still gives the ear an impression of 'txxxängey' (the -ey coming from the increased palatalization alone, making it come across as an epenthetic [i], which is not actually there), even once you adjust the vowel and give the 'ch' that little air puff necessary to make it come across as English-sounding.

    September 8, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Febrentu

    "TCH/DJ OR T/D? In BP, before a high vowel, the consonant T becomes TCH and D becomes DJ." I would add "in some accents". Maybe more than 40 millions of us don't do that (mostly in Northeast and South).

    March 1, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

    Oh, I did hear a brazilian speaker pronounce it like that but when I asked "why?" the answer they gave me was: "fake brazilian", so I never really bothered much with this. But I doubled checked this and you are correct! I'll add it. Thank you!

    March 1, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Febrentu

    Well, I am not a fake brazilian. I think it is fake the brazilian who doesn't know his own country and accents. I am scared of the contacts you had sharing such non-true things. Anyway, well done!

    March 2, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

    You are right! I believe everyone should at least the minimums about their own country and language. I guess they never heard anyone from the Northeast and think it is fake. Thanks for pointing that out

    March 2, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Lea.1717

    As a Portuguese person I can confirm that this is a very complete and well done post. Obrigada por te teres dado ao trabalho de o escrever, Vasco.

    March 3, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

    Obrigado! :)

    March 3, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/LICA98

    coelho (BP: /ku'e.lhu/)

    shouldn't it be ʎ rather than lh? anyway what is the difference between ʎ and lʲ?

    EP: És o próximo?

    how come it's not "É que és o próximo?"

    Amar (to love) - Past tense (preterite): In BP it is spelt as "amamos" but in EP it is spelt as "amámos".

    it's for all verbs that have the same "nós" form in past tense and present tense, not just amar

    March 1, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

    Oops, yes, it's ʎ. I forgot to change "lh" to "ʎ". Thank you!!

    The difference between ʎ and lʲ is:
    > ʎ is articulated on the hard palate. (A "true" palatal consonant)
    > lʲ or ȴ is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate, which means that it is articulated further than a "true" palate consonant. It also gives a small impression that EP speakers say "coelyo" and not "coelho". But the difference is minor and no one in Portugal will judge you if you pronounce it as ʎ.


    "É que és o próximo?" is not valid because:
    This construction is only valid in WH-questions.


    Yes, you are correct. I gave "amar" as an example. I'll edit the post to specify that it is an example.

    March 1, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/evandroguaru

    Nice post! in Brazil "Você" is different from Portugal. Here, it is informal. The formal way are "Senhor (man), Senhora (married woman) and Senhorita (single woman). Tu is used in south of Brazil and some regions of northeast and North. In some places the conjugations is correct (tu vais) but other is wrong (tu vai).

    March 8, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/AlexDiaconescu

    Thanks a lot !

    February 28, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

    De nada! :)

    March 1, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RafaLeon14

    Truly impressive. By far the most incredible and informative thread I've ever seen about the differences between the BR and PT versions of Portuguese. Thank you very much for this thread. Really really helpful.

    Fun fact 1: I've been studying some English vocabulary on Clozemaster the last couple of months and the other day one of the words they were asking me to write was "pineapple" (I had to write it in a blank box to complete the sentence in English) and the translation they gave to help me was "ananás". I had some difficulty to guess that I should put "pineapple" there because I've never heard anyone referring to a pineapple as "ananás" (always as "abacaxi").

    Fun fact 2: I remember that some years ago I was studying with a tutor to do a big test. I had to go to her house to study and I remember that her husband was a Portuguese man. It's funny because I always had the worst time ever every time he was talking to me because I couldn't understand a single word that he was saying. I used to ask him to repeat what he had just said and I still couldn't understand him. After three or four repetitions, I just used to pretend that I finally understood what he was saying and internally I was hoping that it wasn't a question! hahahaha

    March 1, 2018

    [deactivated user]

      I've never heard anyone referring to a pineapple as "ananás" (always as "abacaxi")

      Over here in Portugal we use mostly ananás. An abacaxi is a somewhat smaller and sweeter ananás. In fact "ananás", in its various forms is a very widespread word... take this image: https://imgur.com/gallery/dPhYR

      It's mostly to poke fun at English but it just shows how common the word is.

      March 1, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Scutigera

      Funny as I was told it is the opposite, that ananás come from Açores and abacaxi from South/Central America. The stores mostly use abacaxi from what I have seen.

      However, both words are actually natively Brazilian (Tupi). Ananas was picked to be the Latin binomial (scientific) name (and the reason it is the common name in so many languages though piña is from Spanish – slightly [un]related, the orange is called portukal in Turkish – the apple comes from French/German as the word for "fruit").

      So all abacaxi are ananás

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binomial_nomenclature
      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pineapple

      In the scientific binomial Ananas comosus, ananas, the original name of the fruit, comes from the Tupi word nanas, meaning "excellent fruit"

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ananas
      https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/abacaxi#Etymology

      And there would be no pineapple in Açores without coming from the Americas. Really, they are just different varieties of pineapple. I know that is sacrosanct in Portugal, but I bear the ugly truth.

      March 4, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

      I thank you for your kind words.

      About your fun fact 1:
      Like Nuno275251 said: we distinguish between "ananás" and "abacaxi", but whenever someone is not sure between which is which, we just call it "ananás".
      Usually, "abacaxi" is sweeter (and cheaper?) than "ananás".

      About your fun fact 2:
      Hahahaha, yes. That's the main issue between EP and BP: phonology! Only if you have enough exposure to EP you will be able to understand what we are saying! For example, in fast speech, we don't say: "são necessários", we say: "são n'ssários" (the "ss" is long)

      March 1, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/RafaLeon14

      I love how I've been learning some cultural facts of Portugal here. Duolingo is going farther than just English learning for me. hahaha

      vascocunha99, you're right. The major problem that I had at that time was the fact that he used to speak too fast and I couldn't get anything.

      March 2, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

      I'm surprised how you learn cultural facts about Portugal here. I guess, when learning Portuguese, you'll always figure out how certain things work in Portugal hahaha

      March 3, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jennycoy1

      Very interesting - top marks:))

      March 1, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

      :))

      March 1, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jennycoy1

      Hi Vasco, Are you bilingual EP/English? Your technical English is very good indeed. Do you teach Portuguese? :))

      March 2, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

      My case is a bit complicated.
      I grew up in Britain and my way of speaking Portuguese wasn't really that good but several years ago I came back and I had to learn Portuguese as a second language. As a matter of fact, I studied everything about Portuguese, even its history. About knowing the difference between EP and BP - I have many Brazilian friends and I have even been to Brazil once, that's how I know the differences.

      March 2, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jennycoy1

      So you are indeed bilingual or even trilingual with your knowledge of BP. I have been studying with Duo for just 13 months to learn all P basics and have found the course excellent as I find the B pronunciation very easy to understand and my reading and spelling is good. But my main focus is to learn EP as I live in the U.K. and holiday as often as I can in Portugal, so now I look for EP sites on utube for pronunciation, different words etc, also RTP which I trawl daily to find out what’s happening in the country and watch and read all videos, which have been so helpful and I can now understand quite a lot, all at normal conversational speed. I love ‘Sim Chef’ the silly TV ‘soap’ and probably understand 80-90% after watching lots of episodes! Also, on my two visits to Portugal in the last twelve months I have managed to make myself understood, thanks to Duo and want to let people know that it is possible to combine BP with EP and be understood. As you say in your post, it’s all about hearing the sound of a word spoken by a native, and being able to reproduce it exactly. Oh, and having a ‘PAIXÃO’ for the language of course ! :)) ps: I will be exploring the Alentejo in May - more local dialects to decipher!

      March 2, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

      Mas BP e EP são a mesma língua, são é duas variantes que se estão a distanciar cada vez mais e cuidado com o sotaque dos alentejanos, é um bocado estranho :D

      And yeah, Portuguese has some odd grammar rules, but they are relatively simple for non-natives to learn (although, verb conjugation with subjunctives, personal infinitive, etc. could be a challenge).
      All you need is paixão when learning Portuguese or any other foreign language.

      March 3, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Dezo_

      Eu gosto da forma como você analisa as coisas, e falo isso vendo o post como um todo e suas respostas aos comentários. O português é uma língua só, e o falar europeu e brasileiro (ou angolano e tantos outros) são apenas variantes da mesma língua. Acredito que ambas são muito próximas ainda (especialmente a escrita) para serem consideradas línguas distintas.

      Vejo muitos comentários até aqui no Duolingo de portugueses que desprezam o português no Brasil, dizem que não falamos português aqui, mas brasileiro, e que o Brasil destrói a língua; por outro lado, há brasileiros que agridem os portugueses e querem independência da língua ou se acham superiores pelo fato de que o número de falantes no Brasil supera em muito o de Portugal, o que tornaria o português brasileiro mais importante do que o europeu.

      Para mim, é uma baita besteira. O português falado em Portugal não é o mesmo de há 100 anos, tampouco o é o do Brasil. Portugal tem muitos aspectos conservadores, especialmente gramaticais, mas no Brasil as coisas não são só inovação, a fonologia daqui é considerada mais tradicional pelos especialistas, mas isso não significa que a gramática em Portugal ou a fonologia no Brasil tenham parado no tempo. As duas variantes estão em processo de evolução, mas para lados opostos, distanciando-se. Acredito sim que em certo momento teremos nos distanciado de tal forma que o português brasileiro possa se tornar independente e se tornar a "língua brasileira", assim como o português o fez do galego tanto tempo atrás. Porém, ambas as variantes ainda são muito próximas para serem consideradas línguas diferentes, tanto é que, apesar das diferenças fonológicas, os falantes de ambas as localidades conseguem entender-se mutuamente sem maiores problemas.

      March 23, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

      Verdade, mas há certos processos fonológicos em evolução que está a tornar a variante europeia muito "eslávica", por exemplo: "isso agora é diferente" /isʷ ə'ɣɔɾ‿ɛ ðʲfɾẽtʰ/. Só se fala assim quando estamos a falar rápido, quando se fala devagar ou com dicção é assim: /isw ə'ɣɔ.ɾə ɛ ði.fɯ̽'ɾẽ.tɯ̽/

      March 25, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jennycoy1

      Sim, eu ouvi tudo sobre as habilidades de canto dos alentejanas :) eu espero poder me comunicar com eles ha ha! On a serious note re. the Portuguese language, would you say BP is equally different to EP as US English is to English spoken in the U.K? or do you think the differences are greater between the two Portuguese ways of speaking?

      March 3, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

      Depending on the accent of both variants, I'd say they are the same as US - UK. Although, many brazilian have a hard time understanding us.

      March 3, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/jennycoy1

      I think I would agree with you - aproveite o resto do fim de semana :))

      March 3, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/piguy3

      Didn't know European Portuguese has uvular trills! (of course, I don't really know that much about it at all :)

      the conditional is replaced with the imperfect or “ir” + infinitive

      Should it be "of" instead of "or"?

      On the occasions when you use "vós," with whom do you use it? As a second person singular extremely formal or as a second person plural?

      March 2, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

      It's a uvular trill /ʀ/ or a uvular fricative /ʁ/, in some speakers it's a velar fricative /x/ and in rural areas it's an alveolar trill /r/.


      No, it's "or" :) Imperfect (pretérito imperfeito) OR "ir" + infinitive


      Okay, I'll specify this on the topic better.
      To begin with, the usage of "vós" is JUST in the northern parts of Portugal.
      - If monarchy was still present in Portugal we would use "vós" towards the king (and we would call the king as "el-rei").
      - It could be used in poetry (just like word order doesn't even exist in some poems...)
      - In religious context (roman catholicism) when talking with god or "god" is speaking to us. In fact, the most used prayer uses "vós": "Pai nosso que estais no céu, santificado seja o vosso nome..."
      - And, for us, Northenhos (lit. northerners), it's not used as much... Especially amongst the youth (I'm no exception). However, we conjugate the verb "ir" with "vós" many times, for example we say:
      "[Vós] ides aonde?" (Where are you (plural) going?). But don't worry, we will still understand you if you say "[vocês] vão aonde?" (some will even say: "[vocês] vão para onde?")
      - Anyways, in rural areas IT IS VERY COMMON to use "vós"

      March 2, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/Scutigera

      It has been my understanding that vós is the plural of the familiar tu but now voces covers both the familiar and the formal.

      https://theepexperience.wordpress.com/2016/06/17/grammar-tips-15-personal-pronouns-1-subject/

      If that is true then we would not address the king (or queen) with vós but rather, vossa mercê

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%E2%80%93V_distinction#Portugues.

      I also think one of the main reasons vós lives on in the north is that it is still the Plural 2nd Person in Galician

      http://www.trevorhuxham.com/2015/09/galician-101.html

      Anyway, I have been collecting the little differences between BR and EU as I come across them to make a post someday... :D But, yours is much better than I could have done. I will look through my notes later to see if there is anything of any use I can add.

      Thank you for all your effort and time putting this together. :)

      March 4, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

      True, we tend to use "vós" in a more informal way. However, about the monarchy: if you speak with the king you are speaking to only ONE person, by "traditional" we should use "vós". Vossa mercê is archaic having evolved to você. Just like in French they use "vous" for formality. (I see so many similarities with french on so many aspects in Portuguese.)

      Mas tirando isso, se tiveres algo que aches interessante p'ra adicionar neste tópico, diz-me. Eu adiciono e dou-te os créditos :)

      March 5, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/w1ndh0ek

      That's a great post!

      March 4, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/vascotuga251

      Thank you!

      March 4, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/blurflux

      Okay but this guide should train people to talk with those from Brasília, because my accent defies many of the rules, and the idiolect (personal speech pattern) even more so. I'm carioca (Rio de Janeiro) and I have extreme vowel reduction with deletion of final syllable vowels (and rounding of the preceding consonant, if it's a /u/) just like in Portugal.

      The pre-stress vowels are in-between open and close, neither like those of the Northeast or like the ones of São Paulo. I have usually have mid vowels for both, as I do for the nasal vowels (even if stressed). But like comments have mentioned, we have also a lot of vowel reduction in those, it's just that we also tend to possess vowel harmony. I'd pronounce caráter as [ka'ɾatex] or [ka'ɾateʀ], but padaria would be [pɐ.dðə'ɾi.ə], [pə.ðə'ɾi.ə] or [pa.də'ɾi.ə].

      My post-alveolar sibilants are always alveolo-palatal [ɕ] and [ʑ], and the /ti/ and /di/ affricates always [tɕ] and [dʑ] (quite often the /i/ is voiceless or deleted if at the end of a word), and this is true for everyone else in the Rio de Janeiro coast from Mangaratiba to Cabo Frio, including the capital's metropolitan area (it's what makes our accent thick to outsiders).

      And, like I have indicated above, I do have some lenition of /b/, /d/ and /g/! In fact, I have never pronounced "nada" with a straight plain [d] unless I am being ridiculously emphatic (in which case, I would probably geminate it). It's always either ['nadð] (unstressed vowel is deleted), fricative ð ['na.ðə], approximant ð ['na.ðə] or even an outright deletion ['na.ɐ] or ['na:] (particularly in the phrase "de nada", when uttered shortly and quietly). I also would almost always use [gɣ] or [ɣ] for amiga, and usually so for amigo.

      With stressed or pre-stressed syllables it's more complex, I could use [gɣ] for "a guitarra" or "agora" but it would mostly be [g], while "a garrafa" would tend towards [gɣ], with an equal proportion of [g] and [ɣ] as minority forms (the palatalization effect of [i] keeps me from leniting more times).

      What is weirder than all of those, though, is that I also have lenition for /t/! My pronunciation for estrela is generally ['ɕtɾeɫ̪ə] in careful speech, but it might as well be ['ɕtθɾ̥eɫ̪], fricative θ ['ɕθɾ̥eɫ̪] or even approximant ['ɕθɾ̥eɫ̪] if I'm "muttering" or otherwise speaking fast and softly.

      I don't think people realize this, but Rio de Janeiro's dialect, especially the men's ones (I'm nonbinary but w/e), is ridiculously stress-timed, almost as much as that of Portugal, when we speak naturally, so of course it would change the consonants quite a bit. We also palatalize stuff a lot more than other Brazilians, in fact I'd compare it to Japanese, because, to us, any instance of /ni/ comes across as having a nordestino or sulista accent if you're not using the same "wet" Spanish ñ-like sound one would use in nhoque or the name Sônia (with a Southeastern accent).

      Another thing in which Brazilian Portuguese is a lot like Japanese is how the /N/ archiphoneme that some analysts consider as being the source of our nasal vowels actually often has a coda consonant value of its own, and it is usually [ɰ̃]. Ask a Brazilian Portuguese speaker to pronounce "cansaço" for you. It will not sound like a French speaker trying to pronounce it. You can hear this [ɰ̃] everywhere, and it has a particular liking to /ɐ̃/ before non-stop consonants, most particularly coda sibilants. Maçãs definitely isn't pronounced a straight [mɐ'sɐ̃ɕ] anywhere in Rio, or any word in which the nasal vowel comes at least.

      In fact, [ɰ̃] replaces the role of [j] in words in which it would come by if it was an oral syllable, to the exception of /ẽ/, which is indeed often followed by a nasal [j] or at least [jɰ̃]. This only applies to coda |S| or an open syllable final /ẽ/ as in garagem, though - I'd personally transcribe my pronunciation of gente as being ['ʑẽ̞ɰ̃tɕ].

      September 8, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/piguy3

      Fascinating stuff! I wish Forvo had sub-national location indicators to give a hint of which more specific dialect the pronunciations reflect! I can follow most IPA broad transcriptions, but it gets a lot harder when it's narrow.

      September 8, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/argovela

      Would anyone happen to know of any texts on «accent reduction» targeting students of Brazilian Portuguese?

      Such materials exist for English-as-a-Second-Language students, such as the books by Ann Cook. I've been hoping some day to find Portuguese counterparts.

      I apologize if I've strayed a bit too far from the topic. Thank you for your forbearance, and for any tips on resources!

      September 8, 2018

      https://www.duolingo.com/profile/catarino1977

      Great post! I also find a nice post about this topic at: https://lisbonlanguagecafe.pt/brazilian-portuguese-and-european-portuguese/

      June 25, 2019
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