"No, I am not Japanese."
です is a "confirmation" to the previous statement, while ではありません is to deny. If you didn't include this phrase, others would not know if the statment is yes or no (but could still be assumed with your tone and body/face expression). For example in your case, if I said 田中さんは日本人ではありません, then Mr. Tanaka IS NOT a Japanese.
This could also be used to trick someone into believing something is true at first, then instantly deny it to make fun of a situation.
Please also not that ではありません is a very strong and firm denial that one is very sure about it. In spoken Japanese, じゃない(です) is more common because it's less firm. It feels like "nah" or "nope" in english. People also think that is more polite though informal.
で in ではありません is a gerund of だ
でありまして is the gerund of であります
であって is the gerund of である
でして is the gerund of です
だって is the gerund of だ
にて is the gerund of に
で is just a contracted form of に+て
だ is a contracted form of で+ある
あった is the past form of ある
あって is the gerund of ある
あった = あり+た
あって = あり+て
だった = で+あった
だって = で+あって
だった is the past form of だ, right?
だって is the gerund of だ.
(I might just be joking around though... I simply wanted to try upping the pedanticness to the nth degree. Ignore me.) :P
Haha, I could see that one coming. I didn't want to spoil the pattern of the first few lines of my post... XD
I guess I should have started with this:
まして is the gerund of the ます auxiliary verb
でありまして is just the following three (or five) things used one after the other:
- で, the gerund of に, contracted form
- あり, the 連用形 of ある
- まして, the gerund of ます
でございまして is just the following four (or seven) things used one after the...
Oops, I'm getting carried away again. :D
Can someone break this down for me a bit? I know that 'ありません' is a word unto itself; I remember that much when I took two quarters of Japanese in the 90s (before I had to change schools to one that didn't offer it as a course), but the 'では' part confuses me a smidge.
I get the rest, but that bit is a little strange to me.
Re-reading this, I think I get what you're saying, now.
I gross layman's terms, you're saying that "dewa" means 'is' the same way "desu" does, while "arimasen" means 'not', and when combined, they mean 'is not'...?
I mean, it's weird that it's not 'desu arimasen', but still...if that's what each part of the sentence means, then I grok.
First, neither です nor では have anything to do with "to be". "To be" is ある, its polite negation is ありません.
You got it almost right that it should be です + ありません. And it almost is. The full break up of the construct is "Xで" + は + "ありません". "Xで" is equivalent to "Xです", it's just a gerund form of it. Then it is followed by a negation ありません. They are connected by contrastive は, because negation is contrastive by its nature.
Duolingo's sentence uses ません though?
ます is an auxiliary verb. This auxiliary verb simply increases the politeness/formality of whatever verb it is used on. ません is the negative form of this auxiliary verb.
ある is basically the main verb of the sentence. This verb is in its plain form. あり is the form of this verb which is used for adding auxiliary verbs to it.
あります is the polite version of the verb ある. (This is the verb ある + the auxiliary verb ます.)
ありません is the negative form of あります.
(It's a bit more complicated than this, since the sentence we're discussing actually uses a form of the copula で + the particle は + the verb ある. I'm glossing over this to make the explanation of ません a little easier to understand.)
Occasionally, Duolingo is being weird and gives me a "another correct solution" which is the exact same as I put together, the only difference being I chose a single block saying ではありません instead of piecing it together using smaller blocks (で + は + あり+ ませ + ん). While I see a point in highlighting that it's not a single word, I think it would be better to leave the "single block option" out altogether.
Here are directions on how to submit a bug report.
FYI, there is no rhyme nor reason to how the word blocks are broken up, so we're not trying to "highlight" anything. Since Japanese doesn't feature spaces, the system randomly breaks up words in ways that are extremely nonsensical at times, but we (the contribs) have no control over that. I live in fervent hope that some day the devs will find some way to give us the power to define where words start and end.
There is no "watashi" or "watashi wa" in this sentence, at least not in the recommended translation.
Japanese rarely uses pronouns. Since you are probably answering a question that was directed towards you, then it is already implied you are talking about yourself so adding pronouns is unnecessary.
In casual speech though you can drop some particles. In later lessons you will see a few instances where は is replaced with a comma.
The verb "to be" in X+ではありません is ある. Thus です has nothing to do with "to be". What is left from です in ではありません is で in the beginning. The full parsing is:
"X+で" + "は" + "あり+ません"
The last part is your "is not/are not". "日本人で" is the same as "日本人です", i.e. a noun predicate, only in the gerund form. "は" is contrastive, since negation is contrastive by its nature, "は" is usually present in the negative sentences.
は is a phrase particle, わ is an interjection typical for feminine speech (e.g. from Sailor Moon: 行くわよ). X+ではありません breaks down as: (i) "X+で", which is a noun phrase, a complete sentence about X's state of being; (ii) は is a phrase particle, emphasizing the contrast introduced by the following negative utterance; (iii) ありません is a negative of ある, "to be", i.e. "is not".
わ simply has no place here.