"Nudili jste se během té hry?"
Translation:Were you bored during that play?
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Mostly interchangeable. Caution: "při" goes with the locative, while "během" takes the genitive.
"při práci" is "while (I'm) working / while (I'm) at work"
"během" is closer to "during", it puts more emphasis on the passage of time during an event/situation. Note that it's a preposition now, but it was created as the instrumental form of "běh" (run, running), so "během hry" is literally "by the run(ning) of the play", there's a sense of time moving (running).
In most situations, the distinction is negligible.
There are some more-or-less set expressions, such as "při práci", "při jídle", "při sexu", but it's possible to use "během" in those, as well.