According to this diferentes means various before the noun but different after the noun.
"Various adj (of diverse kinds, types) = diferente adj"
"There were various responses - everything from denial to anger. = Había diferentes respuestas, desde la negación hasta la ira."
07/15/18. You are correct, elizadeux! "Diferente" is one of a little over 20 chameleon-like Spanish adjectives whose meaning changes depending on whether it is placed before or after the noun it modifies. [And, of course, there are also a minority of Spanish adjectives which are only placed before the noun they modify (e.g. bastante, tanto/a, etc.).]
For "diferente," it means "several" or "various" when placed before a noun and means "different" when placed after the noun. Thus, the English translation "different" for "diferente" (before noun) provided by DL in the headnote for this discussion is actually inaccurate.
In addition to the excellent article you cited (www.spanishdict.com/guide/adjective-placement), there is another interesting article about this and other such meaning-changing Spanish adjectives (see http://spanishlinguist.us/2014/11/do-spanish-adjectives-usually-follow-nouns/#comment-675951).
On Duolingo, you'll learn a version of Spanish closer to what you'd hear in Latin America than in Spain, but the differences are relatively small and everybody will be able to understand you.
Although you probably will not see them used in any of the displayed answers, Duo does accept answers using all Spanish forms of "you" including vosotros/as and vos
Castellano simply means Spanish (not European Spanish). About half of Spanish speaking countries in Latin America call it Castellano and not Español.
With that said, the majority of what you learn here is applicable in Spain too. You just need to practice vosotros and swap a few words (coche for carro, zumo for jugo, etc.)
I will try to make a simple explanation for most of the case without a context. Bebemos vinos diferentes = for example, you are speaking to a third guy OUT of your group, that you and your friend are drinking different kinds of wine (but a small number of them) he/she white and you red. The second case, bebemos diferentes vinos can be used for example in a tasting experience, where you and your friend/couple... are trying a bigger number of them in small quantity, maybe 8 different kinds of wine.
by the way Danielzabuski, in America, we say "different kinds of wine" not, "different kind of wines". Sorry to interject, thought you might like to know since you are learning English American style. Otherwise your English is excellent! And thank you for your Spanish explanation!
You're not expected to know what a sentence means when you see it for the first time. When you come across a new sentence, you're able to click on or hover over individual words to see the translations for those you don't know. It's by seeing these words, sentences and phrases for the first time, and learning them by repeating the exercises, that things gradually begin to stick. In addition, most (if not all) versions of Duolingo will highlight words it's never shown you before in orange. Be sure to also check the tips and notes before starting a lesson where they're available! They're super helpful, and often explain pretty much everything you need to know about a certain lesson.
Like Fillmoe said, making mistakes is actually a key word here. It may sound odd, but our brains often learn things more easily by having to correct a mistake. And, if there's ever anything you need to know about the language, there are plenty of people on these forums happy to help! :)