"This is all very sudden."
Translation:Das ist alles sehr plötzlich.
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"alle" would be plural, but "das" is singular, so it's followed by the singular "alles". In both English and German, you treat "all this" (as well as "everything / alles") as a singular thing (you don't say "All this are very sudden" or "On this old TV, everything are grey").
Two examples for plural: "Can you find me a different knife? All of these are blunt." = "Die (or: diese hier) sind alle stumpf." (...and, for the record: "These are totally blunt" = "Diese hier sind ganz/völlig/total stumpf"); "Let's pluck some strawberries! ...Oh no, they're all still green." = "Die sind alle noch grün."
Alle das isn't grammatical, it should be All das or Alle die, maybe even Alles das (usually shortened to all das). It's a problem of number, sg. vs. pl. As the English sentence is in singular, "Alle die sind ..." will probably not be accepted, so you can just say "All das ist sehr plötzlich" as an alternative to Duo's version. Also dies instead of das should be fine.
In German, (in my book anyway) we don't imagine the sentence "Das ist alles sehr plötzlich" as "This is --- all-very-sudden"; only as "All-this --- is very sudden". In other words, "alles" doesn't refer to "plötzlich" (as would be possible in English, e.g. "He was all red in the face / smug / alone") and therefore doesn't intensify it. Which also means that I agree with Max.Em about "das alles" being interchangeable with "all(es) das" (and everything else he said, for that matter).
As the German version of "all [adjective]" I'd suggest "ganz" ("Er war ganz rot im Gesicht / ganz allein") or, more colloquially, "total" ("Er war total selbstgefällig"). Or even more colloquially, which you really shouldn't use in formal company: "voll" ("voll rot im Gesicht", doesn't work for "allein").
"das ist alles sehr jah" doesnt work either. What the actual (substituted with a long text instead be cause i fear i may be banned) is wrong with duolingo showing various translations under a word and then only accepting one. And if anyone tries to argue saying something along the lines of 'well you see, x doesnt fit the context here' why does duolingo not give any indication of that? Phew, long text. I guess i wanted to vent.