"Meine Schwester hat einen Hund."

Translation:My sister has a dog.

March 21, 2013

21 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/khartouN

so what's the difference between "mein" and "meine"? I thought the "e" on the end signified a plural..? what's wrong with "Mein Schwester hat einen Hund"?

Thanks

March 21, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/christian

It's more complex than that.

http://goo.gl/U5ykD

March 21, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/slytherclaw

Meine is feminine, and plurals often act as feminine. (I say often because I'm not sure whether or not it's "always")

March 27, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/wlirly

meine is a feminine form of mein, which is masculine and neutral

March 21, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/MarkSteckloff

I'm confused: Mein is masculine and modifies Schwester, which is feminine? Doesn't the gender of the possessive pronoun have to agree with the gender of the thing possessed (as in French)? If not, what determines the gender of the pronoun? The person or thing which does the possessing? (But here, the speaker is clearly female.)

November 13, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/Schorschi

Not sure where you're getting from that "mein Schwester" is correct. It isn't. "Meine Schwester" is. And yes, the prononun takes the same gender (and declination) as the noun. "Mein Bruder" (masculine). "Meine Schwester" (feminine). "Mein Auto" (neuter).

And no, the sentence does not give away the gender of the speaker. It could be said by both a man or a woman.

November 13, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/MarkSteckloff

Thank you, that's exactly the information I need. For some reason, Duolingo dinged me when I answered "Meine Schwester".

November 13, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/BilboBaggins0135

It could also be said by a genderless alien or android.

March 12, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/katiecski

Why "einen" and not "ein"?

July 30, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/Schorschi

Because "Hund" is the accusative object of the sentence. And because it's masculine the declination ends in "..en."

August 9, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/Nadbag

I am not a native english speaker, what is an accusative object?

April 15, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/Schorschi

The fundamental components of any sentence in (almost) any language are:

Subject, predicate, object.

The subject of a sentence is the thing or person (i.e. noun) that does something (actively).

The predicate is the verb of the sentence that the subject uses.

And the object is the thing/person (noun) that the subject does something with. It is the entity that suffers the action of the subject.

So: the subject does something with the object. The "does" part is described by the predicate (verb) of the sentence.

As I said, you will find this fundamental structure in almost any language. For one, it exists in German and English.

In our example:

  • "Meine Schwester hat einen Hund." - "My sister has a dog."

"Meine Schwester" - "My sister" is the subject of the sentence. "My sister" is the thing/person that actively does something.

What is she doing? She "has" - "hat". So, "has" is the predicate of the sentence.

Who or what does she have? "Einen Hund." A dog is the thing in the sentence that the subject is doing something with or to.

The subject is the active part and the object is the passive part of a sentence.

So, the components of the sentence are:

  • Subject: "Meine Schwester" - "My sister".
  • Predicate: "hat" - "has".
  • Object: "einen Hund" - "a dog".

Now we get to the thing called "cases" or "declinations". There are four cases in German: nominative, genitive, dative and accusative.

The subject of a sentence always is in nominative. The object of a sentence can never be in nominative, but is always in one of genitive, dative or accusative.

The predicate of a sentence most often decides in what case an object in a sentence appears. Here, we have the predicate "to have" - "haben". Whenever that predicate is used in a sentence (in German), the object must be in accusative. That is a rule you just have to learn.

So, we are now getting back to what I wrote in my previous post: "Hund" is the accusative object of the sentence. It is in accusative for two reasons: it is the object of the sentence and it is used with a form of "haben" - "to have".

"Hund", however, appears with the indefinite article "einen" in this sentence. This article also has to appear in accusative, since it is linked to the object. So, if "Hund" is in accusative, "ein" right in front of it also has to be in accusative (and is being transformed to "einen"). If "Hund" were in a different case, "ein" would have to be changed to that same case.

In German nouns and articles (among other words) tend to change their word endings when they appear in different cases (or declinations).

The "default" version "ein Hund" becomes "einen Hund" when "ein Hund" is to appear in accusative. "Ein Hund", by the way, is in nominative.

Just to give you an idea of the different declinations of "ein Hund", here they are in all four different cases:

  • Nominative: "ein Hund".
  • Genitive: "eines Hundes".
  • Dative: "einem Hund".
  • Accusative: "einen Hund".

The above are declinations in singular, since we're talking about a single dog. In plural, we get yet another set of word endings. Since we can't say "ein Hunde" - "a dogs", let's change the article to the definite one. So, in plural the declinations are as follows:

  • Nominative: "die Hunde".
  • Genitive: "der Hunde".
  • Dative: "den Hunden".
  • Accusative: "die Hunde".

Is your head spinning yet? The word endings/declinations change again if we take a noun of a different gender. I won't list all the declinations for those here though.

So, the above declinations are for a masculine noun. If you take any other masculine noun you can stick it in the above declination tables and the article and word endings stay the same.

  • "Meine Schwester hat einen Tisch." - "My sister has a table."
  • "Meine Schwester hat einen Fisch." - "My sister has a fish."

"Tisch", "Fisch", "Hund" are all masculine.

April 16, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/a1e1c1v

wao! I understood everything. Such a answer deserve an lingot ;)

May 23, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/fenilvs

Thank you for such a great explanation!!! Danke! Danke! Danke!

June 22, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/mszegedy

Are both the singular and plural forms of Schwester the same, like M├Ądchen? I can't tell because Duolingo does not present it at once. Is it then therefore the only way to tell apart the singular form from the plural form that you look at the verb ending (given that it's feminine, so you can't use articles/adjectives to do so)?

August 11, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/Schorschi

No, they're not the same, you're in luck:

Eine Schwester. Zwei Schwestern.

August 11, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/mszegedy

Oh. Thank you!

August 11, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/katelin299

the hund is not pronounced very well.

October 27, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/christian

It sounds absolutely fine to me (native speaker).

October 28, 2013

https://www.duolingo.com/Yinyangrunner

Yeah, I thought it was a word starting with D...but then I listened to it once I knew what they had said and it then sounded right. Not sure. Maybe I'm just not used to the German pronunciation yet.

February 10, 2014

https://www.duolingo.com/Aleisha180205

I just couldnt hear the last word properly

February 24, 2019
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