"Was passiert mit Ihren persönlichen Daten?"
Translation:What happens to your personal data?
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The formal you, Sie, can be used for speaking to one person or to several people. (It's like English "you" in this respect.)
So there's no separate "singular formal" and "plural form".
- Herr Meier, kommen Sie bitte! (to one person)
- Frau Müller und Frau Schmidt, kommen Sie bitte! (to several people)
If you have one of the question words, you don't need to use "do." If you say "what does happen" it means "what really happens, instead of what we thought happens". So "What DOES happen to your personal data is that the NSA reads it all and stores it, rather than it being private without a warrant for due cause. " Or, better, "What happens with your personal data is that it's encrypted while still on your personal computer, so it stays private.
I'm confused about something and hoping someone can clear it up ... I thought I've seen a previous sentence where it said "ihrer personlichen Daten". Am I mistaken? I thought because Daten is plural, it is die. In dative, die becomes "der" and the adjective for plural takes an "en". Now I'm confused because both "Ihren and personlichen" are taking an "en". Is there a rule I'm missing where it is sometimes "ihrer"? Thanks!
"what does it happen..." is not good English. Your confusion seems to be with the word "does". In a German question with the verb in first position then yes you need to use Do/does in English (hat sie einen Hund?=does she have a dog), but if it's a question with a question word (wer, was, welche etc) then there is usually a corresponding English question word (who, what, which ...) and then you don't use do/does to indicate a question.
Some possessive pronoun 'stems':
"Your" (singular, informal) = dein-
"Your" (plural, informal) = euer-
"Your" (singular or plural, polite) = Ihr-
"Their" = ihr-
"Her" = ihr-
Masculine nouns, accusative case = -en
Feminine nouns, nominative/accusative case = -e
Plural nouns, dative case = -en
You have to distinguish between grammar and meaning.
In English, "you" is (historically) speaking second person plural, as you say, but it's frequently used as a second person singular pronoun as well, i.e. to speak to one person. "Tom, are you ready?"
In German, Sie (capitalised) is grammatically third person plural, but it refers to one or more listeners, i.e. meaningwise it's second person (singular or plural).
So also the possessive form Ihre Daten (with capitalised Ihre) refers to the data belonging to one or more listeners, i.e. "your data".
If it had been "their data", it would have been ihre Daten with lowercase ihre.
The polite Sie acts grammatically exactly like the sie which means "they", but its meaning is second person, not third.