https://www.duolingo.com/HelpfulDuo

Duolingo’s Klingon Course is now available!

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Klingon has arrived!

Start learning Klingon on web!

We’d like to thank the amazing team of contributors who made this course possible:

loghaD

mizinamo

jdmcowan

Klingon is a notoriously terse “conlang” - created for Star Trek. For example, the literal translation of “hello” in Klingon (“nuqneh?”) is “What do you want?” The nature of the language posed unique challenges during development, like how do you teach formal greetings in a language that has no use for them? Klingon also has case sensitivity which means that a word can take on different meanings if it’s capitalized or lowercase.

Whether you’re a veteran Klingon fan or a Star Trek newbie, we wish you Qapla' (success) in your language learning journey and can’t wait to hear what you think!

For those of you in the Chicago area - we’re hosting our first Klingon event on March 22nd. RSVP and details here.

The Duolingo Team

EDIT: This post initially stated that Klingon is the only language that places apostrophes in the middle of words, which is incorrect. Klingon is one of the few languages with apostrophes in the middle of words.

March 15, 2018

146 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/garpike
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Klingon is the only language that places apostrophes in the middle of words.

No, it isn't. Very many languages use an apostrophe to represent glottal stops that can occur mid-word, just as Klingon does, including Guaraní, which has been on Duolingo for a long time...

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/em7ec
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The Wade-Giles method of romanizing Chineses uses them to indicate aspiration (Chin = Jin, Ch'in = Qin).

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Luko.
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Also Lojban I think

March 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/HelpfulDuo
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Good point, thank you for pointing that out! Edited the post with this correction :)

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/ProDuoExtra
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No probs:)

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/LICA98
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Ukrainian, French, Finnish also do

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Maughanster_
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And a lot of Polynesian languages, like Hawaiian.

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/OmegaGmaster
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Welsh, Irish (iirc) and other Celtic languages do as well.

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/xmatnazarov
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In Uzbek, apostrophes can also change the meaning of words, eg, sher - lion, whereas she'r - poem

March 16, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/OmegaGmaster
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It indicates a small pause, right? Also, it's used for the letters o' and g'. In Karakalpak and Kazakh (formerly), it is used for letters like a', g', i', n', o', and u'.

March 16, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/OmegaGmaster
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Rahmat, scilling! O'zbekcha gapirasizmi?

March 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
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Before a vowel, it represents a glottal stop; after a vowel (other than ), it marks the vowel as long; between consonants (other than after ), it shows that the consonants should not be taken as a digraph.

March 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/xmatnazarov
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Yes, OmegaGmaster. And scilling is right about it all. Menimcha, juda yaxshi gapirsalar kerak o'zbekcha.

March 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Spandy428
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Also Mohawk, Ojibwe, and Navajo, and I'm sure other native North American languages as well

March 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/jdmcowan
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They've corrected the error already, but while everyone is pointing out the languages that have apostrophes in the middle of words, I would like to add in that even English uses apostrophes in the middle of words. Doesn't it?

March 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Luko.
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Well you see apostrophes surrounded by letters, but the apostrophe is not part of the root word, for example you can say "aren't" but that's a contraction of two words, and "my sister's ..." is sister + 's. Many languages use apostrophes in this way, but some use them as part of a root, sometimes representing a sound or stop.

March 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Skeledenn

Even if I'm a (quite dumb) native speaker, I don't see any French word with an apostrophe in the middle of a word. Do you have any example ?

EDIT : Oh ❤❤❤❤, Aujourd'hui...

March 16, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Arkadios200
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Whoa, hey, Talossan sticks apostrophes in words, too! Words like s'chis (skis), and inac'hosa (anything)... They're used to either create contractions (not like the two examples) or alter the sound of pre-existing letters.

Actually, c'h is an archaic lenition of c that got orthographically preserved.

March 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/OmegaGmaster
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In Breton, c'h indicates the sound /x/.

March 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/garpike
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c'h is an archaic lenition of c that got orthographically preserved.

Did it really? 'C' was lenited back in the primordial mists of 1980, when he made the language up, and subsequently preserved through literally thousands of days of language evolution? I am amazed we can even know such archaic details from a primitive people who had not even invented firefox.

March 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/lizsue
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Even English puts apostrophes inside words sometimes: can't couldn't doesn't don't won't wouldn't etc. ;)

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/yateanieys

The examples you gave are contractions, though. Contractions are technically two words by definition. Apostrophes don't show up in the mid'dle o'f wor'ds lik'e th'is in English.

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/LICA98
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well there is still the possessive 's

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/yateanieys

Yes, but the possessive 's is a clitic; it's not part of any English word exclusively. The point is that there is no English word that exclusively contains an apostrophe (beginning, middle or end) as many words do in Klingon.

Usage of 's is dependent, but it's meaning is syntactically independent. For instance, you can say "the emperor's decree" or you can say "the Emperor of Japan's decree." Both are grammatically correct and the 's conveys the same meaning in both phrases.

Technically, the 's means the same as "of" or "belongs to," so the possessive case is simply the contraction of a host part of speech and the possessive clitic (except when irregular possessives are used).

In Klingon, the word wo' means "empire." The apostrophe is part of the Klingon word wo'—no possessive case, no contraction, etc. If you want to spell out the Klingon word for "empire," then it will always have an apostrophe. There is no such word in the English language.

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/garpike
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I quite deliberately confined my original statement to apostrophes only representing glottal stops to avoid exactly the various (and in my view, valid) arguments you are making. Ukrainian is a valid example of a language with mid-word apostrophe use not representing glottal stops, however.

March 15, 2018

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Contractions are technically two words by definition.

Nonsense. Contractions are shortened forms of words, particularly those in which elided letters have been replaced with an apostrophe. For example "e'er" for "ever".

In any case, even if you want to analyse "couldn't" as two words (which it is etymologically and perhaps syntactically, but not orthographically or phonologically), the words would be "could" and "n't". The second "word" still has an apostrophe within it.

July 28, 2018

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Does anybody know of a language that uses words like: don't, can't, won't? I heard that one used apostrophes in the middle of words.

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianoSua1

Papiamentu

March 17, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/FLchick
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Where are all the guys in The Big Bang Theory?

March 15, 2018

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French (native language of mine) : Aujourd'hui (today), presqu'île (peninsula),, entr'ouvert (half-opened) (you can also use entrouvert though) and many more I havent mentioned.

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Jonkobu
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Still, those are basically two words fused together with a apostrophy. Klingon has words that have those naturally, so that you cannot paraphrase them as "C'est presque une ile -> presqu'ile"

March 16, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/FrenchCamille
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I just want to thank the amazing contributors to this awesome new course. Your hard work and long hours are really paying off. We thank you so very much. You are appreciated in the duolingo forums and beyond.

Thank you!

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/A.S.Beg
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It is amazing that you are learning 23 languages simultaneously. Can you write the difficulty of European languages from easiest to hardest, English being the native language? Thanking you in anticipation.

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/KevanSF
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Too bad there isn't audio. I would think the company that owns the rights to the Star Trek franchise would allow Duolingo to use some audio clips from various shows/movies for free, given that this course also helps promote the ST franchise.

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/DerGoldmann
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It would be great if they could get Shazad Latif, the guy who plays Voq from Disco to do the recordings. From what I've read his Klingon is on point. Mary Chieffo who plays L'Rell seems good too.

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/PotatoSanta
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Actors often don't tend to put much effort into pronunciation when it comes to fictional languages assuming that no native speakers will notice anyway. For now I would suggest this guy https://www.youtube.com/user/StarTrekIS/videos

https://www.youtube.com/user/KlingonTeacher/videos

I think he has a much better knowledge of the language and how it should be used.

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Julestheman
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Will there be any audio in this course?

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/JAndrzej
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Are there any Klingon native speakers in this thread?

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/mizinamo
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I have only ever heard of one native speaker of Klingon on Earth, and as far as I know, he stopped speaking Klingon when he was five.

In the real world, there are no native speakers of Klingon, only second-language learners.

Only in the fictional universe which many Klingon speakers pretend to be in are there native Klingon speakers (who occasionally supply us with insight into new vocabulary, for example).

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/JAndrzej
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Yea, yea, but what if they simply use Klingon cloaking devices?

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/OrigamiAhsoka

Lol! That would be awesome.

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Haesselmaas
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Oh? What about B'ellanna Torres?

May 21, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/mizinamo
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What about her? She lives in "the fictional universe which many Klingon speakers pretend to be in" that I mentioned.

May 21, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Haesselmaas
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Oh, sorry, I thought your first sentence was a reference to Worf ;)

July 18, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/mizinamo
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No -- to the child of D'Armond Speers.

July 18, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/FLchick
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Where's Worf?

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Skeledenn

I used to know one back when I was in Kindergarten. That was a very SPACIAL kid. ... ... ... Ok, I get out.

March 16, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Darkwaters32

Excellent news! Glad to see all the hard work finally personified!

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/isnottogive
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Even if I will probably not be able to try the course in a long while, since I have got a whole lot of other languages to take care of first (And this time I shall be following my plan through and through), I'm beyond ecstatic that Klingon is finally here.

My dad was an absolute Trekkie (The last movie we watched in cinemas together was Star Trek: Into the Darkness), and in a certain way, learning (or at least trying to learn) Klingon would be my way of continuing his legacy of love for the series.

So a big thanks to the team behind the course!

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/DestartreK1st
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Qapla'!

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/-.Andrew.-
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Thanks for the new course!

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/A.S.Beg
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It is amazing that you are learning 12 languages simultaneously. Can you write the difficulty of European languages from easiest to hardest, English being the native language? Thanking you in anticipation.

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Demonym281
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Dutch is the closest to English but has a lot of weird grammar, Scandinavian languages EXCEPT Finnish seem very benign, German's okay (seems like you have no problem with that at level 24 though lol), Italian and Spanish - idk about Catalan - are the easiest in the Romance family IMO, then French, then Portuguese, then Romanian.

After that you're onto Slavic languages and more obscure families...I heard Bulgarian/Macedonian (almost the same) has the oldest and thus simplest grammar among all the Slavic ones.

Welsh, Irish and Hungarian all really interesting but pronunciation and grammar are very tough for beginners I think. Finnish + most of the Slavic grammars sound painfully hard.

Latvian and Lithuanian are the closest you can get to the Proto-Indo-European language we all spoke thousands of years back, that's all I know of them. Estonian is close to Finnish...Maltese is a crazy mix of Arabic and Sicilian...Albanian I have absolutely no idea...Basque is impossible

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/L-C-L
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Basque is not "impossible". Thousands of non native speakers learn it every year. It has very regular pronunciation and orthography, uses the Roman alphabet and has borrowed thousands of Latin and Romance words.

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Demonym281
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Of course it's not actually impossible, I'm just being flippant. I love how Basque looks + the fact it's survived in isolation somehow, but the grammar does seem very unique...in terms of sentence structure etc

March 15, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/J.T.307693

How would you assess your profiency in them? (Könntest du dich z.B auf Deutsch unterhalten oder einfache Texte wie diesen Satz hier lesen?)

March 19, 2018

[deactivated user]

    finally, and thank you, everyone who has contributed to this coarse and even those who have been helpful in voting for it.

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Polygl-not
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    Thanks to the Duolingo team for adding Klingon; based on the other comments, it seems like it's not everyone's favorite, but I've personally been waiting for (if I can remember correctly) almost two years. I'm looking forward to learning such a well-known conlang, and I wish everyone luck! (And to think that I once thought Welsh and Polish were the hardest to pronounce!)

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Usagiboy7
    Mod
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    WOOHOO!!

    I love Conlangs. Especially conlangs that are part of fandoms (fan communities) like Klingon. Fandoms can be powerfully transformative for our world.

    Things like fanfiction, fanvids, fan art, and fan communities give people an amazing space to envision a world different from our current one. There they can test out theories about alternative ways to structure society and economics and members of minority communities are often able to carve out universes that better reflect their inclusion.

    Avid consumers of fan works and fan spaces can consume copious different theories and experience in theoretical space how they might compare and the various ways they might play out. And the effects of this fan-space world building doesn't tend to stay strictly in fan-space, these fans are also part of real space and take momentum into the policies they write and advocate for.

    So, a very big THANK YOU! to Team Klingon for weathering the storms and making this language more accessible. :)

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/lizsue
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    Yes, fandoms don't have to be just brand loyaltoies. :)

    March 20, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/efisgpr
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    THANK YOU.

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/DaveRutan
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    Hmm. Is there a way to express 'Thank You' in Klingon?

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/mizinamo
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    Kind of.

    There is a verb tlho' which means to thank, so qatlho' would be "I thank you" to one person and Satlho' "I think you" to multiple people.

    But Klingons themselves tend not to use "thank you" as often as English speakers do, so (over)using the verb tlho' may well mark you as an outsider.

    It's fine to thank someone for saving your life, but if you ask someone to bring you a glass of water and they do so, that's not worthy of further comment.

    Similarly, there's no word for "please" -- "Could you give me some water, please?" is bIQ HInob! "Give me water!". In Klingon, that's not rude -- just direct and to the point.

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/DaveRutan
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    Wow! I wasn't expecting there to be one, but then the Klingons do acknowledge the concept of debt, so the concept of thanking wouldn't be that far off. I appreciate the answer!

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/EricLindblom

    Is there pronunciation for Klingon? I started the first lesson and it's not pronouncing the words.

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/DaveRutan
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    Apparently there's no audio componant, but this video might be a small help. link

    Check out the channel's other Klingon videos.

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/EricLindblom

    Thanks Dave. I'll have a look at it.

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/kj3ER06x

    This course has been in the incubator for a long time, so I bet a lot of people are excited for it! I wish you all Qapla' in your journey learning Klingon!

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/HunterJamesK

    Very excited to start this course today! Any idea when it'll be available for the app too? Next up: Dovahzul, perhaps? :p Always excited for a new language to start learning.

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/elmagnificbro

    YES!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/JammyDodgie

    YAY!! I've waited SO long!!

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/garciaefremov
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    Call me weird, but although I've owned more than one Star Trek shirt, and even been to (more than one!) convention, here on Duolingo I study languages that aren't fictional. As I do, daily I continue to experience the same two bugs that I have seen for as long as I can remember noticing. Recently I got the hankerin' for some more Immersion, which is when I found it's been taken out. I read up on that decision, and discovered that because only half a percent of users used it, you cut that feature. I had actually been under the impression that community translation was Duolingo's underlying reason for existing and all the gamified learning was supposed to result in people graduating to Immersion. Meanwhile, while it's obvious that there is demand for this language from a sci-fi franchise, what's not as clear to me is the actual real-life benefit (to anyone on Earth) of $atisfying this demand. Do you think Klingon learners will buy Plus?

    Anyway, I guess my point is, your priorities are showing.

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/PannasOwen
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    Yay yay yahoo!

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Conner913106

    I'm a Star Trek Newbie but think this will be fun to learn! Wish me luck an success. maj!

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/JuleneDS

    I know people think its silly to learn a fake language but I think its super fun and I'm looking forward to learning at least a few basic phrases to chat with friends :) :)

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/LanguageAmbrosia

    Woohoo!

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/P-Code
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    I've said this a few times already, but I'm saying it again: thank you so much, Klingon team!!

    March 17, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Finas5

    Mi estas tre feliĉa! Konstruitaj lingvoj estas pli amuzaj!

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Sofia_Williams
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    Yay! Thanks Duolingo :)

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/RandoLukk
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    Maybe do Estonian or Finnish next?

    March 17, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/garpike
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    I think that Duolingo plans to unveil its Finnish course to mark the historic visit of the first Protestant Pope to the thriving and cosmopolitan free-thinking democracy of North Korea.

    March 17, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/tiramisues
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    And the Lingot for the best description of "never" goes to you.

    But never say never, if Luis' mom changes her mind about Finnish it might happen...

    March 17, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/OmegaGmaster
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    This is one of the funniest things I've ever read here. Well done.

    March 17, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/RooyAguirre

    No offense Duolingo, but Klingon is useless. Literally, I know I'm not supposed to whine about it but Finnish and Afrikaans could be way useful than a constructed language. Maybe even Hawaiian, Kichwa, and Bosnian, but Klingon? Really? I'm kind of disappointed, but what can I do?

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/mizinamo
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    Perhaps PR is one reason -- Klingon is "cool" (or at least unusual) in some media circles in a way that Afrikaans or Finnish is not. Gets the media talking about Duolingo.

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/RooyAguirre

    Yeah, I think that's the issue.

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/HunterJamesK

    You can request languages, and many people wanted Klingon though :) and who knows they may bring out those in future upates! Perhaps volunteer to take part in making one of those courses so it can happen

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/RooyAguirre

    I volunteered for Kichwa. Still no answer.

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Demonym281
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    The question is how many staff have how much time taken up by it, compared to a team of volunteers who only want to create a Klingon course. A lot of the workload seems to fall on the latter + it doesn't follow that those same people would otherwise be busy helping with another language course...Duolingo itself mostly seems to just provide quite a rigid template for them to create the course around, but on the other hand I think the team of people working for the app full-time is very small

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/PotatoSanta
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    Are you sure that those languages would have been added if Klingon wasn't?

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/RooyAguirre

    Not necessarily, but let's be honest here. Duolingo cares only about WHAT MEDIA says. "Oh, Duolingo made a Klingon course! Haha, chick!"

    March 17, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/ionasky
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    No offense but football, sport fishing, train spotting are useless. What people like and enjoy is their own affair and what volunteers choose to put huge effort into creating so that those who DO appreciate their work can have fun is entirely thier own affair too. If you want particular stuff so bad then make it or find somone else willing to put in the thousands of hours it takes but don't be down on others who did show up and put in the effort in just because it doesn't please you.

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/RooyAguirre

    Excuse me? Don't talk to me like that please. Should I repeat it? Oh, yes.

    I'm not bashing the volunteers of Klingon. Working as a contributor IS HARD so I know they did a hard work trying to make the Klingon course, I'm not stupid.

    Like @OmegaGmaster said, they are more than 75 people that are able to help in the Finnish course. It's not my fault Duolingo only cares about the media talking about how Duolingo accepted a Klingon course.

    March 17, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Peter.Lux

    You can ask for your money back. Oh, wait.... :)

    There is no reason to bash something created by volunteers who worked hard on it. If there were similar volunteers for other languages, we'd have that as well. It is unfortunate, I would also like to see Finnish over Klingon, but... it's not DL's fault that there are more star trek fans enthusiastic enough to do this than there are Finnish speakers willing to put the time in, etc.

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/OmegaGmaster
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    it's not DL's fault that there are more star trek fans enthusiastic enough to do this than there are Finnish speakers willing to put the time in, etc.

    There's been over 75 willing and able contributors for Finnish. It's the most requested language on Duolingo. It doesn't have a foreign writing system (Latin script) and its grammar type has been taught previously (Hungarian).

    The fact that Duolingo doesn't have Finnish but has Klingon is truly madness.

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Peter.Lux

    I'm sorry but this actually points more to the dedication and fanaticism (I mean that only in a positive sense) of those who worked to build the Klingon course, in comparison to the "over 75" contributors for Finnish.

    If you think duolingo wouldn't put a Finnish course online, if they had people volunteer to put in the full amount of work to make it happen, then that's truly madness.

    Please don't misunderstand me, I agree with the overall point re: Finnish being more useful than Klingon - I'm not debating that. My point is that these courses are built by volunteers, and any criticism of duolingo's "choice" of which course to release first has to be tempered with a realization that they aren't in full control of that; the volunteers are.

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/holdredial

    No one can contribute to Finnish or any other new language course until Duolingo creates an incubation phase for it. But they aren't doing so for many languages although potential contributors have come forth.

    You can apply to contribute to languages here: http://incubator.duolingo.com/apply but Finnish isn't even on the drop-down menu list, although you can type it in anyway via "Enter Other".

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Peter.Lux

    For what it's worth, there is an option to apply as a contributor for languages not specifically listed in the drop-down list that you refer to. Once DL deems there is adequate support, then they launch the incubation process.

    I'm not sure where @OmegaGmaster got the information from (the statement of "over 75" able and willing Finnish contributors, etc).

    I'm pretty confident that if enough qualified people applied to help build the Finnish course, Duolingo would have started the development phase.

    My only point in all of this is that I think people forget that these courses are built extensively on volunteer labor. It's not like we're all paying some big subscription fee and we can complain about how DL is spending the $$$ to develop new course content.

    I'm very thankful for duolingo and for all the volunteers that make the courses possible. Even for a (sorry kingon-ophiles) relatively silly course in the "big picture" such as Klingon.

    Great, now I'll have to watch my back at the next star trek convention I attend :)

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/lizsue
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    Good point - it's not like Memrise.com where anyone can set up an account and put up course material.

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Suikkis

    "If you think duolingo wouldn't put a Finnish course online, if they had people volunteer to put in the full amount of work to make it happen"

    It just isn't as simple as that. This has been discussed multiple times over the years and clearly having enough capable volunteers is not the only requirement for getting a course on Duolingo. Every language still requires resources from the Duolingo side and they just can't take all the languages that want in.

    Even if Finnish would be very popular among language enthusiasts (due to its peculiarities), it's not really a language that would draw big masses and I feel that currently Duolingo is desperate to get more money/users in and targeting more casual learners to do that.

    Languages like Klingon and High Valyrian have great marketing value. Also I believe that the people working on them have already been building previous Duolingo courses so they have connections inside (and maybe require resources less from Duolingo).

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/RooyAguirre

    First of all, don't talk to me like that please, I never said something bad about Duolingo. I said it's unfair that Klingon is here but other useful languages THAT HAVE PEOPLE TRYING TO CONTRIBUTE IN THEM can't be here.

    Second, I'm not bashing the volunteers of Klingon. Working as a contributor IS HARD so I know they did a hard work trying to make the Klingon course, I'm not stupid.

    Third, like @OmegaGmaster said, they are more than 75 people that are able to help in the Finnish course. It's not my fault Duolingo only cares about the media talking about how Duolingo accepted a Klingon course.

    Have a nice day amigo, bye!

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/OmegaGmaster
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    That's exactly how I feel about this course.

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/ajirammico

    Aww, no audio :(

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/rachael.cr3
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    Yay! I love learning conlangs - really looking forward to this course.

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/KaptianKaos8
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    Does anybody know when the Duolingo update that used crowns comes out?

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/HenryLeonardi
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    if there's no audio, could they at least put some explanations for the orthography? I have no idea how to pronounce anything in these lessons

    March 15, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/PotatoSanta
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    I expected that there may not be audio, remember that it is a constructed language with few fluent speakers so I think they can be forgiven for not having it right away. I think the plan was to add it originally hopefully that has not changed. If it does come, however, I am sure it will be before Swahili audio.

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/jdmcowan
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    There are actually a number of fluent speakers and all of the contributors are able to actually speak the language. If they do finally agree to add audio you will surely get to hear our voices!

    March 17, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/HenryLeonardi
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    Thats not my issue. I’m fine with no audio as long as they explain the differences between uppercase D and lowercase d and all the other random orthographic oddities.

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
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    If you’re familiar with the International Phonetic Alphabet, you can find an explanation of Klingon phonology at Wikipedia.

    March 17, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/jdmcowan
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    There is no lowercase d. The only letter that actually appears in both capital and lowercase is Q/q. You will also see H and h, but the h is never a letter on it's own, it only appears in multigraphs (ch, gh, tlh). There is a lesson explaining the pronunciations, but perhaps we held it until too late in the course. Thank you for your feedback.

    March 17, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/TARDISToni
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    I look forward to getting to that point, jdmcowan. Can you tell us where in the tree we will encounter it? A milestone to look forward to. :-)

    jInob lingot (I don't know how to say the pronoun "you" in dative case yet!)

    June 19, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/mizinamo
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    It's the "Sounds 1" unit in the third row of the course.

    June 19, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/TARDISToni
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    Danke, mizinamo. I'll be there very soon now!

    (I recognize you from the German boards, and I keep forgetting the verb "to thank" in Klingon ... also, daher das Deutsche!)

    June 21, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/mizinamo
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    Don't worry too much about the Klingon word for "thank" - many think that it's not very Klingon to say "thank you" anyway, as that would fall under "unnecessary small-talk" together with words such as "please" or "hello" or "how are you".

    June 21, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/TARDISToni
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    There's also a helpful page here that gives the individual letters of the Klingon alphabet, the romanization, the IPA equivalents, and a description of how to pronounce each letter/phoneme for those not familiar with the IPA:

    https://www.kli.org/about-klingon/sounds-of-klingon/

    It's not in-house, no, but a lot of the languages taught on DL are best complemented by seeking out additional external resources.

    June 19, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/fractal_shadow
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    Every time a new language is released, people are complaining that it isn't the language THEY wanted to see. Well, I for one am extremely grateful for the volunteers who worked so hard (for free!) to provide a nice Klingon course that no one is obligated to do.

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Deact1vated_User

    Wahoo! Finally! I can earn more nerd points!

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/MobiuS_360
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    This how you become the greatest nerd of all time XD Merci DuoLingo !

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Stergi3
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    Give some good reasons to start learning Klingon. Okay, I like Star Trek, but I am not so much fan to start learning an artificial language used in there.

    March 18, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/jdmcowan
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    Are you asking us to convince you that you should learn it? If you're not already inclined, then I'm fine with you deciding you don't need to study it and I don't feel like I need to convince you otherwise.

    Or are you asking us to justify why we want to learn it? We don't have to justify anything. We want to learn it and that is enough, even if we can't explain it. Don't you have any hobbies?

    March 18, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/mizinamo
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    The main reason to learn Klingon is probably "for fun".

    If you don't like learning languages just for fun, it's fine if you don't learn Klingon.

    Another reason might be to learn an agglutinative language, but you already know Turkish.

    March 18, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Irene260843
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    Also, learning an OVS language is good brain exercise.

    March 18, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Stergi3
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    Before asking the question I searched for some information about. A language is not just a list of words that makea a phrase, it is a brain product that is created by some mechanism and procedure in human brain. Some linguists as it is Chomsky developed the theory that all languages have the same, common structure as humans have a common part of brain that language is developed. So, that is the question: What new can Klingon give me, except for the pleasure of expressing my thoughts in a famous TV and movie language? For instance, High Valyrian is created by a well known linguist based on scientific principles. Esperanto had been created to be an easy to learn language, so as to become a lingua franca for all. What about Klingon?

    Ok, I know that many are real fans, so these questions are meaningless to them. But I have this question and it's real to me.

    March 21, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/jdmcowan
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    Thanks for explaining that. The way you asked the question, it sounded like a challenge, rather than an inquiry. I still find that the reasons tend to be personal and different for everyone, so I din't know that I can give a good answer. But I can say something about High Valyrian. Klingon is also created by a talented linguist, though one who was not so famous when he started. Klingon is older than High Valyrian and has a larger community of speakers. I haven't studied High Valyrian, but I find that Klingon to be an interesting study in creating a language to look, sound, and feel like a natural language. I also found there are a lot of jokes in the language that make it a lot of fun.

    March 21, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Usagiboy7
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    Stergi3, whether you decide to learn it, here are some ways that conlangs can build cohesion as part of bigger things that can enrich our world: Conlangs and the American Football Fandom. ^_^

    March 19, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/ErickSoares3
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    This course will be released in more languages? And what about more conlangs? - Thanks

    May 20, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/jdmcowan
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    There are no current plans to release this course for other languages. But I wouldn't be surprised if, once the course graduates from beta, a team gets together to copy it for German. But this team is expert in Klingon and wouldn't have anything to do with other conlangs.

    May 20, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Tamiatha

    Very excited for this, I've been waiting for about two years for Klingon on Duolingo! Please please add audio, I just don't understand why that wasn't part of it, as it seems this language would be twice as difficult to learn without it. I'm having trouble already, but I'm just happy for what we have! Thank you to the volunteers!

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/mizinamo
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    Audio is definitely planned, but we wanted to get the course out first in a basic version to gauge popularity and success.

    If it is successful enough to warrant the additional work of integrating audio, that may happen at a later point.

    Please also be aware that there are some remaining known issues with capitalisation and apostrophes (e.g. hints for words that start with an apostrophe may be blank) -- this is not a completely finished course.

    But despite being a bit "rough around the edges" (no audio, etc.), we hope that it will still be useful!

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/MacRae5
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    Perhaps Duolingo could use a font that more clearly shows the difference between a lower case "l" and an upper case "I". Thanks.

    June 12, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Zevlag13
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    I'm glad Duolingo is also working in fictional languages such as High Valyrian and Klingon.

    March 16, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Tymewalk
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    Oh yeah! I'm super hyped to hear it's finally out. It's been a long wait, but it's definitely worth it. Thanks Duolingo and Klingon team, you guys rock!

    March 17, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/HappyEvilSlosh

    the literal translation of “hello” in Klingon (“nuqneh?”) is “What do you want?” [...] Klingon also has case sensitivity which means that a word can take on different meanings if it’s capitalized or lowercase.

    Speaking of which it's nuqneH not nuqneh...

    March 18, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/BillCarrol1

    Why did Captain Kirk visit the outskirts of the solar system? He heard there were Kilngons around Uranus.

    March 18, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/KyleChen352
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    Great for Star Trek fans :)

    March 18, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/medicjnavarro

    The course needs the audio!!!!

    March 18, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/AdrianoSua1

    Daaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaang, fricking klingon from STAR TREK is a language of DUOLINGO!!!!!!!!!! At first I thought it was a game on duo.

    March 19, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/StarTrekFa1

    Why is there no pronunciation or voice speaking while you hover? will that come later? right now we can't speak it or hear it, only see and type

    March 19, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/mizinamo
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    Audio will hopefully come later, but there is no specific ETA we can give yet.

    There are still some remaining problems, not just with missing audio but also with capitalisation and hints for words starting with apostrophe, but we're releasing the course in beta version now anyway for people who would like to try to give it ago even in this less-than-finished state.

    Just please be aware that this is not a completely polished course yet.

    March 19, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/ISpeakAlien
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    So you're adding Klingon and High Valyrian (both entirely useless conlangs) before Arabic? What's that about?

    June 25, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/dpatkat

    Any recommended list of Star Trek episodes where Klingon Spoken? Some jibberish, and others forming the foundation for birth of Klingon as a language.

    PS, Congrats

    September 12, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/jdmcowan
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    The TV shows prior to the current one, Discovery, all had terrible Klingon. The movies did pretty well because they hired Dr. Okrand to translate the lines and be on set to help the actors. The Motion Picture, The Search for Spock, The Final Frontier, and The Undiscovered Country all of good Klingon in them. The new Discovery has hired a couple of the top Klingon speakers to do their translations and hired dialect coaches to make sure it is pronounced correctly, so it's got very good Klingon, too.

    September 13, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Usagiboy7
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    dpatkat,
    The new Star Trek series, called Star Trek Discovery has Klingon lines and Klingon subtitles for at least one episode via Netflix. (Online, I've seen some people mention that it is only episode one, and others mention it is only episode 4. So, I don't know if by episode 1 people meant only 1 episode and that episode is 4, or, what.)

    I don't know if the the entire episode offers subtitles or if only the parts in spoken Klingon have been captioned. I'm hoping that with the use of the word "subtitles", they are signaling that it's the entire episode.

    I'm not sure if they've subtitled more since then. You have to go into the subtitles menu to access the Klingon subtitles. Also, I'm not sure if the Klingong subs available everywhere or not. In the beginning, people were saying they couldn't access the subtitles unless they were using Canada's Netflix.

    September 13, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/jdmcowan
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    The Klingon subtitles are only available on Netflix, which means they cannot be seen in the US or Canada (since the show is on other networks in those countries). Rumor is the Netflix Klingon subtitles will be available on the Blue Ray in all countries where it will be sold. Where the Klingon subtitles are available, they are available on all the episodes and all of the dialog, no matter the language, is subtitled in Klingon.

    September 13, 2018

    https://www.duolingo.com/Usagiboy7
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    Hi jdmcowan, thank you for letting us know that the subtitles cover all episodes!

    I was wondering what the hold up was with us not being able to see the Klingon subtitles in the US. I didn't realize they were also not available in Canada! I must have mis-remembered or it must have changed for Canada. I am sad that business competition has had a negative impact on language access like this. :(

    September 13, 2018
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