Yes, this is a general problem with hints on words that start with an apostrophe.
Duolingo programmers are aware of it and I hope this will be fixed eventually, but for now we can only wait.
Please do not report "Hints are wrong or missing" for the case of no hints on words starting with apostrophe -- it's a known issue and there's nothing the course contributors can do about it.
Here's a link to a good vocabulary:
If you're serious about learning Klingon, The Klingon Dictionary is pretty much a must-have. Despite its name, it's not just a dictionary or wordlist but also a grammar reference.
If you go for a used copy, make sure to get the second edition (white cover); it includes an addendum with additional words and grammar that are not found in the first edition (blue cover).
For more vocabulary and more insights into Klingon culture, Klingon for the Galactic Traveler is the second book to get.
There is a lesson on pronunciation early in the course, keep going. You'll get to it very soon. However, it still has no audio. My recommendation for an audio introduction to the sounds is https://www.audible.com/pd/Sci-Fi-Fantasy/Star-Trek-Conversational-Klingon-Adapted-Audiobook/B002V8MSM2 since you can hear how the creator of the language pronounces it. There is also a decent introduction to the pronunciation at https://youtu.be/YjROGAY19pU
That's right. The second noun is always the actual thing under discussion and the first describes it in some way - the owner, the type, what it's made of, etc. So: A HoD Duj is "the captain's ship". A tlhIngan SuvwI' is a "Klingon warrior". And a baS yan is a "metal sword" (baS meaning "metal" and yan meaning "sword").
I'd say the strictest translation is "aesthetically pleasing", since it's more general and ungendered. A ship can be 'IH, a woman can be 'IH, a sword can be 'IH... but even something ugly can be 'IH, if it suits it. A garbage can would generally not be 'IH, but if it's a really well-constructed can made of robust material, and a well-executed design, I might say it was 'IH. If you're familiar with Chinook trade jargon at all (or Canadian slang), the word "skookum" is corollary. Something sturdy and well-built might be 'IH while completely lacking "Hem" (proudness).
As a dictionary entry, yes, but in a sentence, it could be "pretty" or "is pretty" or "will be pretty" or "she was pretty" or various other translations.
For example, be' 'IH could be translated "a pretty woman". (Translating that as "a to be pretty woman" would not make sense.)
There is also a problem with the "skip" function. When I press it, Duolingo tells me (in red text) that my answer to the lesson was wrong and that the correct phrase is "Mara's building was pretty." It's as if the system does not want to let the learner actually skip this phrase without noting a wrong answer, which is not wrong given the proffered information.
Could this be translated as "Mara's pretty building" as well?
No. That would be mara qach 'IH.
When the verb 'IH "be beautiful" comes before the noun, it's normal "(object–)verb–subject" word order: 'IH mara qach "Mara's building is beautiful".
When such a stative verb or "be-verb" is to act like an English adjective, it comes after the noun: mara qach 'IH "Mara's beautiful building".