Well, is and no. The literal translation is indeed "the France", but this is actually just a difference on how both languages talk about countries. In English, you don't need an article to define a country, but in French (and most Latin-derived languages), you do need it. But please correct me if I'm wrong!
That one can be a bit difficult. When used with people, aimer = to love (Je t'aime = I love you; Il aime sa mère = He loves his mother). Otherwise, aimer = to like (J'aime les pâtes = I like pasta; Tu aimes ton pays = You like your country).
Now, the tricky part: what if you want to say I like you? Well to like (someone) = aimer bien (quelqu'un) (I like you = Je t'aime bien; He likes his colleagues = Il aime bien ses collègues). On the other hand, if you want to say I love pasta, then to love (something) = adorer (I love pasta = J'adore les pâtes; You love your country = Tu adores ton pays)
Yes, articles before countries but not cities. Also, "in a city", e.g. "in Paris" is always "à Paris", etc., but "in a country" is more complicated. If the country name is masculine, "à le" becomes "au", if it's plural, "à les" becomes "aux" (like everything else in French), but with feminine country names, "à la" becomes "en". (This is just for country names, in other contexts, it stays as "à la")
I think this is true even with an adjective... like "la belle France." And after some prepositions...like "de la France." But then I guess it's 'en France' to say 'in' France.
La France, L'Allemagne, L'Angleterre, La Belgique, La Chine, L'Espagne...most countries seem to be feminine. Some exceptions: Le Japon, Le Luxembourg, Le Canada, Les États-Unis (m. plural).
I have no idea how I'm supposed to do these questions where I am given multiple choices to guess the context that they should be used in. I've never been properly introduced to the words or the contexts being used, and I always have to use trial and error to guess them. That feels like a design shortcoming, because I don't know the contexts or the words well enough to guess how they should be used in these questions.