https://www.duolingo.com/TRViveLaFrance27

"Bonjour à tous, ou plutôt à toutes."-- What is difference between "tous" and "toutes" ?

I'll introduce you Monaco filled with historical kings, movie stars, fascinating history.

Monaco, the second largest country in the world dating back to the 12th century, is one of the fascinating travelling road of the Mediterranean.


History Of Monaco

Arrival Of The Grimaldi Family

Following a land grant from Emperor Henry VI in 1191, Monaco was refounded in 1215 as a colony of Genoa. Monaco was first ruled by a member of the House of Grimaldi in 1297, when Francesco Grimaldi, known as "Il Malizia" (translated from Italian either as "The Malicious One" or "The Cunning One"), and his men captured the fortress protecting the Rock of Monaco while dressed as Franciscan monks—a monaco in Italian, although this is a coincidence as the area was already known by this name. Francesco, however, was evicted only a few years afterwards by the Genoese forces, and the struggle over "the Rock" continued for another century. The Grimaldi family was Genoese and the struggle was something of a family feud. However, the Genoese became engaged in other conflicts, and in the late 1300s Genoa became involved in a conflict with the Crown of Aragon over Corsica. The Crown of Aragon eventually became a part of Spain through marriage (see modern day Aragon) and other parts drifted into various pieces of other kingdoms and nations.
You can see Grimaldi below.

Year 1400-1800

In 1419, the Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon and became the official and undisputed rulers of "the Rock of Monaco".
In 1419, the Grimaldi family purchased Monaco from the Crown of Aragon and became the official and undisputed rulers of "the Rock of Monaco".
In 1612 Honoré II began to style himself "Prince" of Monaco.
In the 1630s, he sought French protection against the Spanish forces and, in 1642, was received at the court of Louis XIII "Duc et Pair Etranger". The princes of Monaco thus became vassals of the French kings while at the same time remaining sovereign princes. Though successive princes and their families spent most of their lives in Paris, and intermarried with French and Italian nobilities, the House of Grimaldi is Italian. The principality continued its existence as a protectorate of France until the French Revolution.
In 1793, Revolutionary forces captured Monaco and it remained under direct French control until 1814, when the Grimaldi family returned to the throne.

19th Century

Between 1793 and 1814 Monaco was occupied by the French (in this period much of Europe had been overrun by the French under command of Napoleon).
French annexation in 1860;

Monaco remained in this position until 1860.
by the Treaty of Turin, the Sardinian forces pulled out of the principality and the surrounding county of Nice (as well as Savoy) was ceded to France. Monaco became a French protectorate once again. Before this time there was unrest in Menton and Roquebrune, where the townspeople had become weary of heavy taxation by the Grimaldi family. They declared their independence, hoping for annexation by Sardinia. France protested.
The unrest continued until Charles III gave up his claim to the two mainland towns (some 95% of the principality at the time) that had been ruled by the Grimaldi family for over 500 years. These were ceded to France in return for 4,100,000 francs.
Grimaldi family could afford to entertain thanks solely to the extraordinary success of the casino. This made Monaco not only a playground for the rich, but a favored place for them to live.

20th Century

Until the Monegasque Revolution of 1910 forced the adoption of the 1911 constitution, the princes of Monaco were absolute rulers. The new constitution, however, barely reduced the autocratic rule of the Grimaldi family and Prince Albert I soon suspended it during the First World War.
In July 1918, the Franco-Monegasque Treaty was signed, providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, endorsed in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque international policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests, and resolved the Monaco Succession Crisis.
The marriage of Grace Kelly to Prince Rainier III brought attention to the principality.
In 1943, the Italian Army invaded and occupied Monaco, forming a fascist administration. Shortly thereafter, following the collapse of Mussolini, the German Wehrmacht occupied Monaco and the Nazi deportation of the Jewish population began. René Blum, the prominent French Jew who founded the Ballet de l'Opera in Monte Carlo, was arrested in his Paris home and held in the Drancy deportation camp outside the French capital before being transported to the Auschwitz concentration camp, where he was later killed. Blum's colleague Raoul Gunsbourg, the director of the Opéra de Monte-Carlo, helped by the French Resistance, escaped arrest and fled to Switzerland. In August 1944, the Germans executed René Borghini, Joseph-Henri Lajoux and Esther Poggio, who were Resistance leaders.
Rainier III, who ruled until 2005, succeeded to the throne following the death of his grandfather, Prince Louis II, in 1949. On 19 April 1956, Prince Rainier married the American actress Grace Kelly; the event was widely televised and covered in the popular press, focusing the world's attention on the tiny principality.
A 1962 amendment to the constitution abolished capital punishment, provided for women's suffrage, and established a Supreme Court of Monaco to guarantee fundamental liberties.
In 1963, a crisis developed when Charles de Gaulle blockaded Monaco, angered by its status as a tax haven for wealthy French. The 2014 film Grace of Monaco is loosely based on this crisis.
In 1993, the Principality of Monaco became a member of the United Nations, with full voting rights.

21st Century

In 2002, a new treaty between France and Monaco specified that, should there be no heirs to carry on the Grimaldi dynasty, the principality would still remain an independent nation rather than revert to France. Monaco's military defence, however, is still the responsibility of France.
On 31 March 2005, Rainier III, who was too ill to exercise his duties, relinquished them to his only son and heir, Albert. He died six days later, after a reign of 56 years, with his son succeeding him as Albert II, Sovereign Prince of Monaco.
In 2015, Monaco unanimously approved a modest land reclamation expansion intended primarily for some desperately needed housing and a small green/park area. Monaco had previously considered an expansion in 2008, but called it off. The plan is for about six hectares of apartment buildings, parks, shops and offices for about 1 billion euros for the land. The development will be adjacent to the Larvotto district and also will include a small marina. There were four main proposals, and the final mix of use will be finalised as the development progresses. The name for the new district is Anse du Portier.

Government

Monaco has been governed under a constitutional monarchy since 1911, with the Sovereign Prince of Monaco as head of state. The executive branch consists of a Minister of State as the head of government, who presides over a five-member Council of Government. Until 2002, the Minister of State was a French citizen appointed by the prince from among candidates proposed by the French government; since a constitutional amendment in 2002, the Minister of State can be French or Monegasque. However, Prince Albert II appointed, on 3 March 2010, the Frenchman Michel Roger as Minister of State.
Albert II, Prince of Monaco;

Under the 1962 constitution, the prince shares his veto power with the unicameral National Council. The 24 members of the National Council are elected for five-year terms; 16 are chosen through a majority electoral system and 8 by proportional representation. All legislation requires the approval of the National Council, which is currently dominated by the conservative Rally and Issues for Monaco (REM) party which holds 20 seats. Union Monégasque holds three seatswhile Renaissance holds one seat. The principality's city affairs are directed by the Communal Council,[56] which consists of 14 elected members and is presided over by a mayor. Unlike the National Council, councillors are elected for four-year terms, and are strictly non-partisan; however, oppositions inside the council frequently form.


Population

Demographics

Monaco's total population was 38,400 in 2015. Monaco's population is unusual in that the native Monégasques are a minority in their own country: the largest group are French nationals at 28.4%, followed by Monégasque (21.6%), Italian (18.7%), British (7.5%), Belgian (2.8%), German (2.5%), Swiss (2.5%) and U.S. nationals (1.2%).
Citizens of Monaco, whether born in the country or naturalized, are called Monégasque. Monaco has the world's highest life expectancy at nearly 90 years.

Language

The official language of Monaco is French, while Italian is spoken by the principality's sizeable community from Italy. Thus, French and Italian supplants Monegasque, the vernacular language of the Monegasques, which is not recognized as an official language; English is used by American, British, Anglo-Canadian, and Irish residents.
The Grimaldi, princes of Monaco, have Ligurian origin, thus, the traditional national language is Monégasque, a variety of Ligurian, now spoken by only a minority of residents and as a common second language by many native residents. In Monaco-Ville, street signs are printed in both French and Monégasque.

Religion

Christianity - % 83.2
No Religion - % 12.9
Judaism - % 2.9
Islam - % 0.8
Others/Unspecified - % 0.5


Geographical Features And Climate

  • Monaco has 1.8 square kilometers and has soft weather. After the Vatican, the smallest city is Monaco.
  • Monaco has an area of 2.020 km2 (0.780 sq mi) and a population of about 38,400, according to the last census of 2016.
  • Generally, temperatures do not drop below 20°C (68°F) in this season. Monaco has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, which is influenced by the oceanic climate and the humid subtropical climate. As a result, it has warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters.
  • With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second-smallest and most densely-populated sovereign state in the world.
  • Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km (3.40 mi),[6] a coastline of 3.83 km (2.38 mi), and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m (1,859 and 382 yd).
  • The highest point in the country is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward, which is 161 metres (528 feet) above sea level.
  • Monaco's most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins.

Sports

Formula One

Since 1929, the Monaco Grand Prix has been held annually in the streets of Monaco. It is widely considered to be one of the most prestigious automobile races in the world. The erection of the Circuit de Monaco takes six weeks to complete and the removal after the race takes another three weeks. The circuit is incredibly narrow and tight and its tunnel, tight corners and many elevation changes make it perhaps the most demanding Formula One track. Driver Nelson Piquet compared driving the circuit to "riding a bicycle around your living room".


Some Informaton About Monaco

  • It is deduced that the name of the country comes from Monoikos, meaning the only house in Ancient Greek. The reason is that the people of the region mostly live in detached houses.
  • The Monaco flag is the same as the Indonesian flag. The only difference is that the Indonesian flag is wider. The flag, made up of red and white colors, symbolizes the dynasty of the country.
  • The national symbol of the country is known as cicada birds, and the national plant is known as carnations.
  • The country is divided into 4 regions, Monaco Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo and Fontvielle.
  • It is the capital of the Monaco Ville country that stretches along the Mediterranean. At the same time, the area called Kaya is shown as a more historical area. Located on the north-west of the country.
  • La Condamine is known as the oldest commercial district in the country. The most important region of the country, Monte Carlo, is known for its luxury casino complex, opera house, hotels, shops, nightclubs, French and Italian restaurants. Fontvieille, whose name is found here, is the economic and industrial region of the country.

  • It is one of the richest countries in the world. Since 1870, income tax is not taken, so the country is called a tax haven for billionaires.
  • There are no unemployed and poor in Monaco.
  • The most biggest soccer team is AS Monaco, participating in the "Ligue 1" competition.
  • Every day 50,000 people come to Monaco to work from Italy and France.
  • Monaco is one of the most reliable routes for travel. Crime rate is very low in the country.

Touristic Places

Prince's Palace

Prince's Palace, located in Monaco Ville, the capital of Monaco, brings the area of Monaco's princes and their families to life, as the name suggests. The Principality Palace, a successful example of European and Mediterranean architecture, is among the buildings that attract the most visitors in Monaco.

Prince Rainier Classic Cars Collection

The museum is made up of the collection of Prince Rainier's personal cars, also known as the Monaco Top Cars Collection, which lived between 1923 and 2005, and contains hundreds of classic car models from Europe and North America.

Oceanographic Museum

The Oceanographic Museum, one of the rare marine science museums in the world, has emerged as a result of Prince Albert's curiosity about the sea and sea creatures that lived between 1848 and 1922. The whale, sea horse, sea turtle skeletons in the collection exhibited in a historic building; different ship models; there are many remains and artifacts such as tools and weapons used in maritime.

Monaco Cathedral

Monaco Cathedral, also known as Saint Nicholas Cathedral and firstly built in 1875, was completed in 1903. The cathedral, which has a long history, is the oldest church in Monaco, where the first church was built. It's from Nicholas.

Grimaldi Forum

The Grimaldi Forum, the most important conference and congress venue in Monaco, has hosted many UEFA Champions League influencers, EVER Monaco exhibitions and concerts, and it is a big and critical point for the city.

Napoleon Museum

Many works of the Napoleonic period created by Prince Louis. The Napoleon Museum, with its museum and vehicle, is a unique source especially for those who are concerned with the history of France and the French Emperor Napoleon.

Exotic Gardens

Exotic Gardens, which was first introduced with water plants that started to be brought from Mexico to Monaco in the 1860s, has been in service since 1933 and today it brings one of the most important areas of Monaco's list of places to visit.

Monaco Opera House

Being built in 1861 and one of the most refined examples of French architecture, the Monaco Opera House also houses the Monte Carlo Casino outside the opera hall.

In addition to these, you can also browse the following places; Church of the Sacred Heart, Saint Nicholas Cathedral, Lar Votto Beach, Saint Devote Chapelle.


I edited from links, it is an excerpt.

References

Thanks, From

<h1>TRViveLaFrance27</h1>

Thanks- TRViveLaFrance27

March 23, 2018

8 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/MarlouChou

"Tous" c'est masculin et "toutes" c'est féminin :)

March 23, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/TRViveLaFrance27

Hmm, Actually, The answer is very simple. Thanks !

March 23, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Madhav_Malhotra

Tout = A single masculine thing

Tous = A bunch of things of which at least one is masculine

Toute = A single feminine thing

Toutes = A bunch of things of which all are feminine

*Note: If there are feminine things in the group, but there is even one masculine thing then we use "tous". On the other hand, everything in the group needs to be feminine for us to use "toutes", although I'm not entirely sure why.

March 23, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/TRViveLaFrance27

Very descriptive, Thanks !

March 23, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Madhav_Malhotra

No problem!

March 24, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/IanC798471

What you hear there is a little bit of pushback by a French woman at the linguistic idea that a group of people including both men and women can simply be referred to by default as one would refer to a group of men.

March 23, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/wjbett

I would like to know, also!

March 23, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/Aroura.R

tout becomes tous when modifying masculine plural forms, and toute and toutes modify feminine singular and feminine plural forms, respectively. When modifying nouns, tout is unlike other adjectives because it is placed before the noun

March 23, 2018
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