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Heads-up: becoming stricter with the vocative

A number of the sentences in the first few sections use vocatives -- they explicitly name the person the speaker is talking to, as in "I like your car, Paul!" or "Mary, do you understand me?".

Sometimes, these vocatives are separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma, sometimes they aren't. This can be confusing.

Over the coming days, I plan to tidy up the sentences so that vocatives are always separated by a comma.

This means that, for example, yaj'a' mara? will only accept "Does Mara understand?" and no longer "Does he understand, Mara?", while the opposite is true for yaj'a', mara? with comma.

Also, please translate vocatives in the same position they are in Klingon -- yaj'a', mara? will accept "Does he understand, Mara?" but not "Mara, does he understand?", while the opposite is true for mara, yaj'a'?.

On the topic of order: please translate nouns or sentences joined by "and", "or", or "but" in the same order that they are in Klingon. torgh mara je will be "Torg and Mara", not "Mara and Torg".


March 24, 2018



Thank you. This was confusing me!


On the topic of "and"... sometimes it needs article, sometimes not? "Qapla' batlh je" => "success and honor"; "Hos peng je" => "A language and A name" . :/ Or is there a rule that says when you have the article and when not? (think)


In almost any case, any combination of articles might be true. Sometimes this course unnecessarily restricts you to a certain article, and I've been flagging those when I find them.

For instance, if I gave you the sentence qach 'el HoD, any of the following are legitimate translations (I'll keep everything in the simple present tense and only focus on articles): The captain enters the building. A captain enters the building. The captain enters a building. A captain enters a building. The captains enter the buildings. Captains enter buildings.

Without further context, and none of the Duolingo sentences have any further context, you can't tell which of these are meant. A Klingon speaker might actually mean more than one of them, because the Klingon speaker isn't thinking of specific articles; he or she simply speaks of qach and HoD.

It's a bit like how you can say something is blue without specifically distinguishing whether it's cyan or navy blue or whatever. It means any or all of those, depending on the thing you're talking about. Klingons can talk about HoD entering qach, and not specify whether it's a HoD or the HoD or just HoDpu' in general.


I would like to ask that all of you, please continue to flag sentences that seem to be missing the particular combination of articles that you tried to use, as DavidTrimb3 has been doing. In theory we should have already entered all of the possibilities, but in reality I am completely certain that there are still plenty more that we have missed.


For your particular examples, {Qapla'} "success" and {batlh} "honor" are abstract concepts, whereas {Hol} "language" and {pong} "name" are countable.

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