"muSaH'a'? HISlaH. DuSaH."
Translation:Does he care about me? Yes. He cares about you.
Once you pass the "verb prefix practice" unit, you will find nearly none of them.
One reason we use them there is to make the distinction between "you (singular)" and "you (plural)" clearer -- the clue will be in whether the answer uses "I.../...me" or "we.../...us"
This way, we can force you to use particular prefixes that you might otherwise not have used.
Once the prefixes have been (hopefully) drilled, this becomes less necessary.
(And in fact, the remainder of the course uses mostly a subset of the prefixes, especially ones where either the subject or the object is third person: much less "we ... you" or "you ... us".)
I completely get why you, the course creators, have structured the course the way you have, and I've been meaning to say, GREAT JOB, GUYS!! Yes, the verb prefixes/conjugations and related examples may feel a bit tedious now, but they're a very complicated aspect of the language which is unlike any Earth language I know of, and we NEED to be able to learn them in order to structure the simplest of sentences. And this type of sentence structure in particular helps us to learn which pronoun prefixes mirror each other. Once we get the verb prefixes down, I'm sure there will be a lot more nouns, adjectives, and other fun stuff thrown at us. There are a lot of steep learning curves in Klingon that have become apparent with each advancing lesson, and I think the course creators have done a great job of setting everything up the way you did. Satlho' !!
If you as Klingon learners are in this for the long haul, I'm sure you'll be rewarded very soon. We're still in the very early stages - just keep at it!
Klingons are people too! :-) We see in Star Trek that they have families, they mate and go through a bonding ritual similar to marriage, they have children, and they howl and mourn when other Klingons die. Of course they care about each other, although they may express it differently from how humans do. I think the fact that the word SaH exists in Klingon, and the fact that it means 'to care about someone' as weĺl as 'to care (in general)' should be ample proof of that.
Okay, I'm confused...looking it up, the prefix 'mu-' seems to be for both a singular he/she/it, but also for a plural they.
I mean, I realize that, when we see 'DuSah' in the reply to the question, we can get it from context, but...howintheheck is someone supposed to understand the question if, when you ask, the one responding doesn't know which you mean? Especially if the subject of the question isn't present.
It seems...really inconvenient. Would require frequent demands for clarification.
If we had already been talking about who was doing the things then it would be pretty obvious. If we were talking about multiple people, and I wanted to make it clear that I was referring to all of them doing the thing and not just one, then I would probably add a pronoun to clarify: muSaH chaH. Or if it would be just too hard for you to understand which of the multiple people did it, then I might add a specific noun to make it clear: muSaH SoSwI'. You don't have to wait for the demand of clarification, if you need to be explicit then be explicit right from the start.
Either I haven't gotten to those pronouns yet, or I've completely forgotten.
That's been a problem for me, actually...forgetting. But then, there are a lot of words learned early that never get used again in the lessons (or, if they do, don't come up for quite some time later, and I haven't gotten there yet). I've been going back and doing a lot of practice (like now) in order to try to solidify my memory.
I'm going to look for some details for you, but for the moment, please remember this paragraph from the Tips & Notes of this Skill:
The prefix system allows both the object and subject to be indicated on the verb itself and because of the specificity of the prefixes, it is often not necessary to specifically state the object and subject with additional explicit objects and subjects. However, if you do want to explicitly state who or what the object or subject is, to make the sentence even more specific or for emphasis, you simply put the name, noun, or pronoun before the verb (if the object) or after the verb (if the subject).
And in the Tips & Notes from the previous skill (Pronouns) we have some information about using ghaH, chaH, 'oH, etc. to clarify a subject like this. There's a lot of information and it's a little complicated, so it's probably worth going back and reading the whole Tips & Notes again. But here are the parts I think may be most relevant:
Pronouns can also be used with verbs, including stative verbs that correspond to English adjectives. jIH means "I" or "me": jIqet jIH "I run"
Since the null prefix is used for many third person subjects and objects, pronouns are also sometimes used to clarify when they are not explicit: mara legh qoq 'ej 'oH tI' ghaH "The robot sees Mara and she fixes it".
chaH is used for a group of beings capable of language and bIH for a group of inanimate objects (and animals etc.).
Yes. It is one of the "best" translations. If you tried to enter it and it was rejected, is it possible you had some other error? I see a "my answer should have been accepted" report where the s was left off of "cares". Could that be what you entered? Because "care" is also a word, but not correct in this case, the software marks it as incorrect. If that's not it, do you have a screen shot of your correct sentence showing it marked as an error?
The course generally doesn't accept they as a singular pronoun in English, not because it isn't a perfectly valid pronoun, but because to ensure people understand the difference between ghaH, chaH, and bIH. People already get confused because the last two are both they.
Yes, singular they is a perfectly valid translation of ghaH, but for the course, please just pick he or she to show that you understand that a subject is third person singular. ghaH represents any gender in the singular. For language-using beings chaH represents any combination of genders in the plural. And bIH represents any group of non-language using things, beings, and/or concepts.
Am I missing something in the sentence that states the gender
Klingon doesn't really have gender (beyond animate/inanimate for ghaH versus 'oH or for the body parts/speaking people/other distinction in the plural suffix), but there is a number distinction: DuSaH can only mean that the subject is third person singular (he, she, it). It cannot be third person plural (they) as "they care about you" would be nISaH.
muSaH could theoretically be either "he, she, it" or "they", but given that the answer uses Du-, also muSaH must logically have a subject of "he, she, it" but not "they".