"Letos máme mnohem těžší předměty."
Translation:We have much harder subjects this year.
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It's an adverb, just like "much" is in English in this sentence. To modify an adjective ("harder", "těžší(ch)"), we need an adverb.
The adverb was originally created as the instrumental case of "mnoho" (as an indefinite numeral), i.e. "by much", but now its fixed in its form as an adverb.
Well if you say so, and I can't argue with how Czechs express these things, but I have to say the meaning of "adverb" used to be verb modifier. Whereas in this case in English at least, "much" modifies "harder" (adjective) which in turn modifies "subjects" (noun). In a sentence where "much" does not modify anything, e.g. "we have much" surely "much" is an object not an adverb, as in for example "we have books"?
Yeah, "much" can serve different purposes in different sentences. In the same way, "mnoho" can be an adverb or an indefinite numeral (as in "we have much").
I was talking about THIS sentence. Here it's an adverb in both languages. Advers don't only modify verbs. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adverb