"It is cold. It is freezing."
Translation:Il fait froid. Il gèle.
As you could tell, "le temps est" has to be followed by an adjective, just like "the weather is".
"Il y a du" needs a masculine noun to follow, like "Il y a du vent".
Can it also be translated from English to French: Il est froid. Il gele? Besides: Il fait froid. Il gele. Please someone advise.
No, when saying it is cold (and for some similar expressions, like "it is hot"), the French uses "il fait" where English uses "it is". It's just an idiomatic usage you have to learn.
When I meant, previously, was introduced as an exercise: Il est suffisamment chaud aujourd'hui. And then it was accepted with "fait" also. In other words: both were accepted as true (correct). So what can they accept both here on this exercise (example). That is my confusion. Again we were taught to use : "Il est chaud" to mean "It is cold" at the very beginning of the lessons...
"Il est suffisamment chaud aujourd'hui" is a technically possible sentence if "il" is referring to an already mentioned thing (like if someone just said, "le temps n'est pas chaud très souvent" (the weather is not warm very often), I could say "Il (="le temps") est suffisamment chaud aujourd'hui [pour faire qqch]"). But it doesn't work as an impersonal "il", like in "it is cold". That has to be "il fait".
"Il est" probably shouldn't be accepted in that sentence because it's not that common and results in confusion.
"Il est froid" refers to an object, like a glass, or a person. "Le verre? Il est froid."
With the weather, it is idiomatic to use "faire" instead of "être". "Il fait froid."
I think i've answered my questions here, does « Il fait » is for describing the weather while « Il +conjugation » is for ongoing weather, right?
Yes. "cold" is an adjective "Il fait froid", while "freezing" is the gerund of "to freeze" "Il gèle", so it could alternatively be "It freezes", except we don't say it that way.
"Il y a" means "There is". "There is cold" doesn't work in French, especially since "froid" here is an adjective, not a noun. So it would be like saying "There is cool" or "There is hot".
Im guessing fait kinda means feel cold. But can I use fait for other things like je fait bon aujourd'hui?
No - "fait" usually means "do" or "make". "Il fait..." for the weather is just a fixed expression to be learned. It cannot be translated directly into English.
Is "geler" also the verb one would use to describe water freezing, or for freezing food in the freezer, for example?