"Pattes" may be any of several terms in English, generally "paws" if that word is appropriate to the animal. But a fly does not have "paws" so we would say legs. Feet also works. Not all the correct alternatives had been included although I have just added them. Context is a factor and as usual, here we have none except that it is some kind of animal that has un museau.
“hooves” = « sabots »
This seems funny to me, because I always picture a snout on a pig. Yet, a pig doesn't have paws.... I would say: "The feet and the snout are white." for a pig or "The paws and the nose are white." for a dog.
I might use the word "muzzle" for a horse, but it can be mistaken for something that goes over the nose of a dog to prevent biting (muselière) and I personally wouldn't use “muzzle” for a dog.
To further confuse you, in a sentence in which there is no vowel sound after “pattes”, some French people will add a schwa sound at the end of the word and others will still stop at t. This is a natural variation within the language and may be a natural flow to help when it is followed by another consonant.
I think it's sorta (sort of) like "wanna" (want to) and "gonna" (going to) in English. Small words are barely pronounced, especially in rapid spontaneous speech. Native listeners don't even notice this because they automatically fill in the missing words as they listen, but beginners are unable to do this.