klettern mit sein oder haben
I have dilemma about what HIlfsverb comes with the verb klettern Which one is correct?
Ich habe auf einen Berg geklettert.
Ich bin auf einen Berg geklettert.
In my opinion i believe it's the second one, since the verbs which are "richtungsorientiert" go with "sein".
But, on this website the verb is conjugiert with "haben" https://www.vocabulix.com/conjugation2/klettern.html
Thanks in advance
I would always say "Ich bin geklettert".
But according to canoo.net, my preferred grammar site, both are correct. http://www.canoo.net/inflection/klettern:V:haben:sein
Duden, on the other hand, agrees with me (Perfektbildung mit "sein") https://www.duden.de/rechtschreibung/klettern
Let's see what other contributors say ... There may be regional differences.
that's "bestiegen/besteigen". Geklettert sounds like going up off the beaten track, scrambling over rocks and boulders or climbing up a tree while "gestiegen" sounds like using stairs or a track.
There's an old word I've rarely heard in the last decades for staircase (Stiegenhaus), which is called 'Treppenhaus' where I live. I think it is still in use in Bavaria and Austria. I suppose you can see the similarity
Yes, the Austrians say "Stiegenhaus", and "Stiege(n)" for "Treppe(n)" as well. One of those austriacisms they defend tooth and claw against Bundesdeutsch.
And there's "Bergsteigen" = climbing mountains, or hiking on mountains. It's only very rarely used as a verb ("ich bergsteige" - sounds strange to me), you'd commonly say, "ich gehe bergsteigen", or "Bergsteigen ist mein Hobby". "Klettern", as opposed to that, would include using / pulling yourself up by your hands a lot (the way I see it). If you climb Mount Everest or just some friendly mountain in the Alps, it's bergsteigen (if it's really easy, it's bergwandern); if you climb a vertical rock like El Capitan or a tree, it's klettern. There are "Klettersteige" (singular: Klettersteig; "via ferrata") as well, those are routes along (or up) rocks / rocky places where you can't simply hike but have to use ropes for security, iron rungs, ladders etc.
"steigen" implies "making steps to go upwards" (onto a mountain or a roof, up stairs); apart from that, it also means "to rise", e.g. a kite, smoke from a fire, the barometer / air pressure, the risk, the unemployment rate.
As a native speaker I never ever heard (in my long life ;) ) anybody saying "ich habe geklettert" and I won't say it myself.
Nevertheless I can imagine that perhaps in case of dialect someone could it express like that. I also notice that some expressions are different in various regions and language is remarkable changing.
E.g. nowadays you may here people say: es macht Sinn (= it makes sense), formerly you never could hear this, everybody said: es hat einen Sinn (with the same meaning in English).
If you want to change your whole layout, it will depend on what desktop environment you use. If you use Cinnamon do:
Preferences --> keyboard --> Layouts
then click the + symbol to add German
then you can switch between us and de on the panel.
; = ö
' = ä
[ = ü
- = ß
be aware that the placement of all the special characters will change.
It's fine to not use umlaute though...
gmbla - The first thing you have to do is activate your CONTROL key on the left and turn it into a COMPOSE key. See if you can find out how to do this by looking online. Then you can make umlauts
For OS: Ubuntu 16.04 x86_64
System settings- Keyboard- Shortcuts tab- Typing column- Compose Key
If the value in front of compose key is Disabled, click the value and press the key to bind from the keyboard. Now your system to ready to print all German characters as below:
compose key + " + A = Ä
compose key + " + O = Ö
compose key + " + U = Ü
compose key + " + ss = ß