"The cellphone was broken by my younger brother."
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Well, one way to think of "坏" is as an intransitive verb, and another is to think of it as an adjective meaning "broken". Still another is as a "stative verb", as Chinese "adjectives" are often called when used as complements.
In any event, a person can't 坏 something, but only make it 坏. "弄坏" and "用坏" should both work. "坏" is then the result of "弄" or "用".
Actually, I think it is 手机 is the subject. Note that this is a passive sentence, so the action is done to the subject.
From the English sentence, I would say '用坏' should not be the translation as '用坏' has more meaning i.e he breaks it "by using it" whereas '弄坏' would just mean that he makes it broken. '弄坏'should be the only accepted translation. If not there's also 摔坏, 丢坏, 敲坏, 咬坏etc. as possible translations.
It indicates the agent in a passive sentence, and basically you can think of it as "by", so, whereas we say in English "The cellphone was broken by my brother", in Chinese it's "The cellphone by my brother was broken".