"She went to the synagogue."
Translation:Elle est allée à la synagogue.
That represents a longer time frame (relatively to the context). In English it would be better translated as "she was going to the synagogue"
In literary French, "she went to" would be "elle alla" ('simple past'). This tense is however now mostly considered archaic, especially in spoken language, and has largely been replaced by the "passé composé" represented here by "elle est allée"
The French imperfect "elle allait" can mean several things but not "she went" as a one-time, past and complete event.
- repeated action: she used to go
- on-going action: she was going