"The little girl plays on the big drum."
Translation:Das kleine Mädchen spielt auf der großen Trommel.
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Attributive adjectives, i.e. those in front of the nouns they refer to, always get a proper ending/declension. It would be klein without an ending only if it would be a predicative adjective, that is an adjective connected by verb like ist/sind/wird, for example "Das Mädchen ist klein und spielt auf der Trommel, die groß ist". Regardless of the gender der/die/das.
I was also stuck on this. There is an answer in https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/812534 "dankedonkey Adjectives that have an article in front of it that is different from its nominative form (mein-meinen) always carry a -en at the end.
http://www.nthuleen.com/teach/grammar/adjektivendungenexpl.html" from that page refer to "Question 2: Is the article in the standard, unchanged form?" (it has a mit der example, same applies here)
"Keep in mind 1: Something -- either an article (der/ein/dieser/etc.) or the adjective itself -- must show what gender the noun is."
The Das already shows Mädchen is neutral, so it gets an e ending.
If there was no Das in front then you would use Kleines.