Verbs & other basics
One thing I have noticed is that this program does not break down verbs and words. It just automatically starts testing you on stuff. Am I missing something? If not, can someone point me in the direction where I can get the information I need?
As phopkins1 says, there are "hints and tips" for some lessons (Spanish doesn't have as much as other languages). However, this is really added on as an afterthought, and not an intrinsic part of duolingo.
Duolingo tries to get you to learn by trial and error. Make guesses, the program will show you when your wrong, and then you'll get to try again. Eventually you'll learn by repetition. Note that this isn't that different from what happens when you actually travel to a foreign country. Even if you've thoroughly studied the language, eventually you'll have to guess a what a word or phrase is, and you'll sometimes be wrong. And then you learn from your mistakes.
If you want a discussion of the grammar of an individual question, you can click on the discussion for that question. There you can sometimes find detailed discussions of particular grammar points, perhaps with links to other places on the web clarifying points.
I don't have most of my links on this computer, but there are certainly websites youtube channels on the web that go over Spanish. I recommend you use them to augment what you do on duolingo, but don't be afraid to do duolingo exercises even if you're unsure of the grammar or vocabulary.
One link I do have on this computer is the "Language Transfer" complete Spanish course: https://soundcloud.com/languagetransfer/sets/complete-spanish It won't give you a lot of vocabulary, but it does try and teach you the structure of the language (including conjugations), and give you the feel of the language so you can learn the rest by exposure and repetition.
I've found it useful to supplement Duolingo with Youtube videos and other outside resources. Some things to look up: Conjugation of regular -ar and regular -er/-ir verbs, stem-changing verbs (like querer and tener) , and some select irregular verbs (ser, estar, ir, and tener).
I think it's good to use other resources as well (websites/youtube/ebooks). Currently I am using these resources :
https://www.languagetransfer.org/complete-spanish (mostly audiofiles, very useful)