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People can make Spanish mistakes, like English speaker do, it doesn't change the meaning of "qué" and "cuál".
What are the places that have a different grammar for "Cuál"?
In French, it would be like the difference between "que" and "quel".
Que fais-tu? What are you doing.
Quel est la question? What is the question.
See, both are translated with an English "What", but Romance speakers make the difference.
Que is often used with a verb. ¿Qué haces? (What are you doing). Like the French "Que" or "Qu'est-ce que...? (Qu'est-ce que tu fais?/Que fais-tu?)
When you have "Cuál es" + noun:
¿Cuál es la pregunta?
When you have ¿Qué es? It's a definition.
Like the French "Qu'est-ce que" (Qu'est-ce qu'une question?)
It doesn't depend on the dialect. Spanish is a subject-drop language, which means that personal subject pronouns can be left out without impacting the meaning of the sentence. Both "necesito" and "yo necesito" translate to "I need" in English.
"Tengo una pregunta" is very fine here as well.
Ron, it's simple: pregunta is a feminine noun while problema is masculine.
The reason for that difference is that problema originated as a neutral gender noun in Ancient Greek. It stayed neuter when it was adopted by Latin, but Latin neuter nouns became masculine in Spanish.
Pregunta, on the other hand, is a noun that developed in Spanish, as a nominalisation of the verb preguntar, "to ask".