"Are you sure that you have put the garbage bin outside?"
Translation:Weet je zeker dat je de vuilnisbak buiten hebt gezet?
If the English sentence use 'placed' instead of 'have put', would the dutch equivalent not use 'hebt'?
You mean, "would the Dutch equivalent use 'zettte' instead of 'hebt gezet'" maybe. Anyway, the answer is "No" for a very simple reason: Time concordance (in both languages).
See, the verb of the main clause in English is are (the main clause is Are you sure ...) and is in Simple present, so the verb of the subordinate clause has to be either in Simple present or Present perfect (the subordinate clause is ... that you have put the garbage bin outside). Of course, a lot of people don't follow this rule in English, but it exists.
In Dutch, this rule more enforced than in English. Since the verb of the main clause, weet, is in present, the verb of the subordinate clause has to be either in present or perfect (either zet or hebt gezet). Still, some people don't follow this rule, but it's not consider proper Dutch not to follow it.