"I don't want to go out this weekend."
That was accepted for me without the 吧. I could be wrong, but if you are just making a definitive statement without any suggestion or requirement for agreement you don't need the 吧 do you?
can someone please tell me the difference between 想，要，and 想要 in terms of saying 'want to...' ? thanks in advance!
FYI, the Kanji Japanese use for "to think; thought" is also 想，so that kinda proves your point IMO
(As for the other two, 要 is mostly used for "to need" and if you combine those two you get lit. "would like to need" so I'd say 想要 is the most indirect one among them)
Not just in Japanese, the 1st and probably most common meaning for 想 in Chinese is "to think/ think about"; "want" is usually listed down at 3rd or 4th. And for 要the primary definition is "to demand, require, ask". So yes, 要 carries a stronger intent than 想.
Nope, in Chinese there is a rule for putting the adverb (周末 in this case) either right after the subject or in the beginning of a sentence. Your suggestion is possible, but it may sound very unnatural to a Chinese native speaker.
Did anyone realize that 想 sounds like xiǎng because it literally has a phonetic component for it? I mean, I knew 相 was xiāng but never really made a connection between these two characters... Probably because I had already learnt it as Kanji while learning Japanese...