A fairly good explanation is given in the Tips & Notes. If you have not been reading the Tips & Notes, I would like to ask that you review those so we don’t have to continuously repeat the information that we have explained there. If you have read them and still have a question, please be specific in your question so we can figure out where the confusion is.
If you are doing the course on iOS or Android, you cannot currently access the Tips & Notes through the app. To access the Tips & Notes, you will have to access the course using a web browser at https://www.duolingo.com/, either from your mobile device or from a computer. When you click on a Skill, it will expand to reveal a Start button and a light bulb. If you click on the light bulb it will reveal the Tips & Notes and give you a detailed explanation of the grammar that is introduced in that Skill. If you have questions after reading the Tips & Notes for the previous and current Skills, then please return to the forum to ask your question, explaining what you didn’t understand or what seems contradictory to you.
Why aren't the tips and notes available in the app, though? Would it really be that difficult to add them to a sidebar or something in the course/ lesson page? (Legitimately asking-- I don't know enough about coding for computer, let alone mobile, to figure out the answer for myself. )
We, the volunteers who work on the Klingon lessons, have nothing to do with developing the website or the app.
I don't know why the tips and notes aren't available; I think they're doing their users a great disservice by not making them available.
Possibly it's got to do with the fact that they think mobile users are more likely to be casual learners who don't want to get scared away by "grammar language", or they don't think the tips and notes are suitably formatted for viewing on small screens (since they might contain tables and the like), or some other reason.
However, there have been promising steps recently; tips and notes are formatted in two columns on the website now, meaning that course contributors already have to figure out how to present their content in a narrower space.
Also, I've heard rumours that some (randomly selected) mobile users do have access to tips and notes, as part of an A/B test to see whether that access improves Duolingo's metrics. (I don't know whether that A/B test is still running, though.)
So perhaps tips and notes will eventually be brought to all app users.
On the other hand, tips and notes have been made less visible to website users -- instead of being displayed after clicking on a unit, underneath the list of lessons inside the unit, you now have to know to click on an unlabelled button with a lightbulb.
So perhaps tips and notes are going to go away for everyone.
Yes; the mobile apps do not show the grammar tips and notes we have provided for each lesson, unfortunately. They are available on the website www.duolingo.com by clicking on the little lightbulb next to the Start button after selecting a lesson unit.
As for audio, we would have loved to provide audio, but that is unfortunately not possible at the moment as this requires technical cooperation from Duolingo staff to integrate an audio source. It may be added in the future, but probably not the near future.
If you can, I would recommend not using the mobile app (except perhaps for revision of material you have already learned after reading the tips and notes) and instead using the website.
Jump in with both feet! Fight through the enemy like a true Klingon. Do not be afraid to get it wrong, for it is through defeat that we become stronger and return to battle wiser and more prepared for the next fight! After a short time you will begin to understand the patterns and it will begin to make sense.
The audio currently available on this exercise is a female and it does sound like there is a loud click on this audio file. Klingon sounds do often produce quite a bit of spit when pronounced correctly, but this particular sentence shouldn't be producing much. I'll see if she can get an improved sound file up.