Translation:I love Kateřina, while he hates her.
In this specific case yes, but kdežto points more at the difference or oppositeness while zatímco does it less strongly (I'd say).
Zatímco can also be used just to point that two events were concurrent while kdežto always points at the difference or oppositeness.
Wouldn't whereas be a better translation instead of while? While has more to do with actions. eg: I was cooking while you were playing.