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"Es ist ein Mädchen" does not actually mean "She is a girl".
Es ist ein Mädchen = It's a girl (as in "Who's at the door? - It's a girl." or "Is it a boy or a girl? - It's a girl.")
Sie ist ein Mädchen = She's a girl (e.g. as opposed to a grown woman)
Etymologically, "das Mädchen" is the diminutive of "die Magd/Maid" (cognate of the English word "maid" / "maiden"), which is no longer/rarely used in modern German. All diminutives ending in -chen are neuter: der Hund -> das Hündchen, die Katze -> das Kätzchen, das Haus -> das Häuschen
This is a predicate nominative. "es" and "ein Mädchen" refer to the same person. There's no object.