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  5. "jaghDaj HoH SuvwI'."

"jaghDaj HoH SuvwI'."

Translation:The warrior killed her enemy.

April 23, 2018



Her enemy?? How does it come? Where is this rule in the course?


In many places, Klingon grammar does not differentiate sexual gender. -Daj can refer to "his", "her", or even "it's".

In translating a sentence like this, you have to pick which one you are going to use for your translation. The system is set to accept all three as possible answers. Though if you get a tile exercise, the system will randomly pick one, and if you get a multiple choice exercise, it will pick one or even two options to show you.


Thank you for such detailed answer! In my question, I also wanted to point, that the suffix Daj wasn't mentioned in any of already learned tips-and-notes.

But with such explanation, I don't need tips-and-notes;)



In some of the early lessons we ask you to just memorize some translations since we have not yet introduced the grammar fully. But we felt that was better than just boring you with lots overly simple sentences.


Can "Daj" refer to someone mentioned previously? For example: "val qeylIS. jaghDaj (i.e. Kahless's enemy) HoH Suvwl'"?


Yes, that's right. Much like "his" or "her" in English, -Daj is a very general reference and might refer to any of a large number of people. In both the English, "The warrior killed her enemy," and the Klingon, jaghDaj HoH SuvwI' it is not specified which "her" we are referring to. It might be the warrior or it might be some other "her". Without context, we don't have another "her" or "him" for it to be referring to, so I would assume that we are talking about the warrior's enemy. But in your example, you are giving a little more context and I would be more likely to assume we are talking about Kahless' enemy in a case like that. If you really want to make it clear, you can be specific about who's enemy they are: qeylIs jagh HoH SuvwI' "The warrior killed Kahless' enemy."


The first H in HoH sounds more like Q, or even q, doesn't it?


I agree. The onset of the first H in the male full sentence sounds like q. I'm not officially here right now and also not male, but we'll see if we can get that fixed.

When reporting audio issues, please always specify male or female, and full sentence or single word. (And be precise about what you heard that seemed wrong, as you were, thank you).


I blame a combination of dry mouth and unforgiving noise reduction on my computer's microphone. It should be better now.


Ooh so Klingon kinda has switch reference?


If by that you mean the placement of the subjects and objects is the reverse from where they are in English, then yes.

Since Duolingo has hidden the Tips & Notes I want to make sure you know about them and where to find them. If you have not been reading the Tips & Notes, I would like to ask that you review those so we don’t have to continuously repeat the information that we have explained there.

If you are doing the course on iOS or Android, you cannot currently access the Tips & Notes through the app. To access the Tips & Notes, you will have to access the course using a web browser at https://www.duolingo.com/. You can still do it on your mobile device, but you will have to use the web browser instead of the app (or you can do it from a computer). When you click on a Skill, it will expand to reveal a Start button and a Tips button.

If you click on the Tips button it will reveal the Tips & Notes and give you a detailed explanation of the grammar that is introduced in that Skill. If you have questions after reading the Tips & Notes for any Skills, then please return to the forum to ask your question, explaining what you didn’t understand or what seems contradictory to you.


I was wondering why "the warrior killed the enemy" was not accepted. From reading the comments, I know.


Is suffix "-wI'" similar to the suffix "-er" in English? Suv is "to fight" and SuvwI' is "fighter". So if Qong is "to sleep", then is QongwI' "sleeper"?


It is. I commend your skills of observation and induction. It is a productive suffix and can be applied to most verbs in exactly that way. The details about how to use this suffix will be taught later in the course.


Is suffix "-wI'" similar to the suffix "-er" in English?

Yes -- very similar.

So if Qong is "to sleep", then is QongwI' "sleeper"?


Also: like English "-er", the suffix applies not only to people ("lead - leader") but also to devices ("toast - toaster"). Or in Klingon, Qum "communicate" gives QumwI' "communicator" and So' "hide, cloak" gives So'wI' "(cloaker =) cloaking device".

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