"I love my little village."
Translation:J'adore mon petit village.
Is there a reason one cannot say, "J'aime bien mon petit village"?
Yes, there is. I will explain, but let me first answer your other questions
A village is not a person, so wouldn't aimer bien mean love in this sense?
No, a village is not a person and you can indeed use aimer bien with village. However, aimer bien never means to love. aimer bien = to like with a person, and a lesser version of to like with object.
Actually to love = aimer with people and to love = adorer with objects. It's the highest degree of pure likeness that you can express.