Good literal translation: "She wants that there be less wine". A little clumsy, but a technically correct English subjunctive.
However, I tried it, and was rejected.
The English present subjunctive uses the "base form" of the verb. The base form is the infinitive without the "to". Thus, "Be" is the base form of the verb (infinitive) "to be."
Many people (including DL) change the English subjunctive to an indicative. Here, the indicative is "She wants there to be less wine".
The english translation isn't a word for word translation in spanish. Ella quiere= she wants. "que haya" is subjunctive and literally means "that there is" but that doesn't make sense in english, so they translated it as "there to be" so it makes more sense. An infinitive of ser or estar isn't needed here. haya= haber= to have (there is/there are). It makes sense in spanish. haya is all you need for the verb :)
"Haya" is the subjunctive for the "haber" version of "to have". It the auxiliary verb, as in "Ella ha bebido el vino", "She has drunk the wine". ("Tiene" is the ownership version of "to have", "She has wine".)
"Haber" is also used for "there exists": "Hay más vino", "There is more wine". That's the meaning used here.
the subjunctive is something someone desires, but may or may not happen. for example, "quiero que vayas a casa" = I want you to go home. It may or may not happen, whereas something like "Quiero ir a casa" simply means "i want to go home", which is much more definitive. May sound confusing but hope you sort of understand what I'm saying.
We actually do have the subjunctive in English. e.g. "I recommend that he take two pills a day." In English, the present subjunctive is simply the singular form of the verb. The past subjunctive is the plural form of the word, but this is only apparent with was/were. e.g. "I wish I were the president of the world!!"
Good try. "Were" is the past participle form of "is" (as well as a plural form).
However, more importantly, It is also an exception to the general rules for creating present subjunctive.
However, the present of the subjunctive uses the "base form" of the verb, except for the verb "to be", which uses were regardless of the number of the subject.
The base form is the infinitive without the "to." Thus, "drink", "give" "take", etc.
These verb forms (drink", "give" "take",) are the "base form" as well as being the singular form.
"I recommend that he take two pills a day."
"(I demand that you) give it back."
"I wish that you were nicer."
"Were you to earn all As next semester..., (I would let you drive the car.")
"I wish I were the president of the world!!"
“He demanded that his students use a calculator.”
"He asked that they be on time."
However, the past forms of the subjunctive are not the "plural forms" of the verb. See these examples:
Past tense subjunctives:
"If the Pacers had won,..." (she would have been happy)
"Had I known you were coming" (I would have...)
"I wish I had lived in Los Angeles,... (when the Lakers were champions)
"Their mother wished that they had come home that day." http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/verbs.htm
Hola LukeCochrane: Wow! That is a big question! What I mean is it is too much to try to explain here in a few comments. Subjunctive is a mood in the Spanish language that is used a lot more than in English. Technically it is the form of the verb "...relating to or denoting a mood of verbs expressing what is imagined or wished or possible". There are many websites you could search and get more details.
Here is one you could try to get started: http://grammar.about.com/od/rs/g/subjuncterm05.htm ---- or if you really want to get into it, just Google or Bing or use other search engine for "Spanish Subjunctive" and you will get more than you really want to know.
The subjunctive is difficult to understand for most English speakers, but it is absolutely essential in Spanish. I would suggest just continue through the Duolingo exercises and you will pick up a little of it along the way. You will need further study, though, to really understand it and use it.
A great book is "Practice Makes Perfect - Spanish Verb Tenses" by Dorothy Richmond. I highly recommend it, not just for subjunctive, but for all verb tenses.
It's sad to say but even for French speaker (which I am because it's my native language) the Spanish subjunctive is the most difficult tense to use . At least it's the case for me . And even if both Spanish and French are Latin languages , "el presento perfecto" is a tense more related to the "present perfect" than whatever tense in French .
I found the subjunctive exercises here on SpanishDict to be extremely useful for this unit. http://www.spanishdict.com/grammar
It has lessons that you can read, but me, I like learning through doing, so I just jumped in and worked through all the quizzes. For each question, it explains why the right answer is right.
I started here: http://www.spanishdict.com/topics/practice/68 and just kept going until I eventually got to the end of all the subjunctive quizzes. (It doesn't let you advance until you get 90%, so I got a lot of practice.)
Also, the subjunctive would not be used if it meant "She loves that ...". The subjunctive is not used, even with "que", if the main verb implies that what follows the "que" is known to be true. "She loves that there is less wine" implies that she knows for sure that there is less wine.
"Ella" in spanish came from "3 singular". If that word is in "3 plural" it should be "Ellas"
People think that vino is with b but v and b have a difference in the way to say it in spanish the B is with your mouth more close than the V.
DON'T FORGET NEVER PUT "HAYA" WITH LL BETWEEN THE 2 A. THAT IS DIFERENT
I can't understand your post, Liane. I must be getting old. Oh, hang on - 3rd person singular and plural regarding "ella". I was taught (in the early 1980s) that the pronunciation of b and v are reversed, in peninsular Spanish. That's how I have been saying them anyway. Your last point seems to say to not write "haya" as "halla". "she wants to find less wine "?
in a previous example "haya" ( PRESENT subjunctive) was used/translated as "there will be" in a sentence that started out with "he hopes that there will be...." (even though the future subjunctive of haber is "hubiere") and here haya is translated as "there to be" which is also future tense - when is the future subjunctive ( hubiere) used if not for "there will be" or "there to be"...??
Ok, good to know it's obsolete. This is where I was getting it from btw http://www.123teachme.com/spanish_verb_conjugation/haber. Thanks.
Hola amigo jjcthorpe: Thanks for the link. Did you notice that even on there it says in the footnote: "Tiempo arcaico" (archaic tense). Definition of archaic:ar·cha·ic ärˈkāik/ adjective 1. very old or old-fashioned. "prisons are run on archaic methods" synonyms: obsolete, out of date, old-fashioned, outmoded, behind the times, bygone, anachronistic, antiquated, superannuated, antediluvian, old world, old-fangled;
Hola y Felices Días de Fiesta, Melita: Yes, you are absolutely correct that "were" is one possible translation in the English subjunctive. I don't think you mean that is the only translation, so.... just for the record, this particular sentence can also be translated "that there would be less wine", "that there will be less wine", "that there may be less wine", "that there be less wine" and maybe some other possibilities. Chau.
Lisa, Isn't English a wonderful language? So much vocabulary from such varied origins, so many ways of saying something, each way with its own nuance. And so hard to learn as a second or third language. I am glad to be learning Spanish and not English. Although, with all the discussion about English, I am learning more about it too :-).
I think saying, "She wants that there was less wine" is not the subjunctive at all. http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-subjunctive.htm
You could have probably gotten away with, "She wants that there be less wine", but not "that there was" less wine.
Yes, that is the subjunctive, and I prefer that version. But say we are talking about an event that will be held in two weeks and she learns that there will be too much wine. "She wants that there be less wine" is perfectly acceptable even if it's a bit extravagant. If we are talking about an event in the past, "She wishes/wished that there were less wine" would then sound better to my ears though I can also see it being use to talk about the present.
From the comments below I guess that DL have exceeded their usual jobsworth. Introduce a new word, introduce a new tense, use a sentence that can be interpreted by Spanish and english alike in ten different ways and then only mark their own opinion as being correct. The perfect way to learn a language!
Thank you Barbara, I try to look for "there be" or "there to be" and didn't found many English grammar topics on that, I found that 'there to be' is highly unusual impersonal form of 'to be' and from that I found this tables of its conjugation:http://www.shertonenglish.com/resources/es/miscelaneous-topics/there-be.php Here's the thing, whether or not the 'that' is needed in English is not the point, yet it changes the way the sentence is put after, but the meaning is intact. The question is the 'there +' part. My argument against "there to be" is not that is grammatical correct or not, but that it is an infinitive, so the translation must have an 'ar-er-ir' ending. I translated as "there is" because I think the sentence was singular and present. And now that you mentioned the form "there be" sounds natural too, yet I'm still inclined to conjugate to 'is' because the beginning of the sentence is in present, and I may use "there be" if tense was not known.
The translations between Spanish and English are not always word for word, or even tense for tense when the infinitive is involved.
"that there be" is actually using the subjunctive. The present subjunctive for "to be" is "be" for all the persons. The subjunctive is rarely used in English now, especially spoken English. The phrase "there be" is only correct after "that", and "that there be" is only correct after certain verbs. https://www.englishclub.com/grammar/verbs-subjunctive.htm
With "that there be", the "that" is required. With "there to be", the "that" must not be there. There are cases where "that" is optional, but this is not one of them.