Yes, but "What do you take me for?" has a pretty strong negative/aggressive sense to it. Is that the case with the Czech version. I've asked again for "What do you think of me?" to be accepted as an answer, which seems to me a far better neutral rendering of the question.
There are accepted alternatives that use "consider," for example, "What do you consider me to be?"
They do not include "What do you consider me for," because that expression might be used, for example, when asking a possible employer what position s/he would "consider you for" based on your experience and the available positions. ("What are you considering me for" would be better. The simple present sounds strange.)
The sentence here, from the perspective of common AmE usage, is asking for someone's opinion of you as a person. "What do you take me for?!?!" is usually used with a bit of outrage when someone feels another person "considers him/her to be" something negative as, for example, a moron, a thief, a rip-off artist, etc.