"I do not have time."
Translation:Io non ho tempo.
Hi, I'm an Italian speaker. Unfortunately there are no simple rules, just a long list of exceptions: https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Articolo_(linguistica)#Uso
In this case I believe that the rule is similar for Italian and English: "the time/il tempo" can be understood as "the amount of time needed to do a specific action", while "time" (without the article) is just an abstract noun. Since the English version doesn't have the article, I would feel its addition as an improper modification of the meaning of the phrase.
It's completely interchangeable in English. I'm not quite sure why it's being debated so much.
I don't have the time (to go to the shop) I don't have the time (my battery is dead (waving phone)) I don't have time (to go to the shop) Do you have time (to go to the shop) Do you have the time (to go to the top).
The main point here is that the italian didn't include the article.
I believe to ask the time it's something like.
Sai che ore sono
Volta doesn't work in situations that can be counted in hours and minutes (like your example, not having time) but it works in other translations of time:
- Uno alla volta/one at a time
- Da quella volta/from that time, since then
- A volte/sometimes, at times
- Ogni volta che/each time that...
Whether to include the definite article or not seems a vexed question in Italian. In another thread, there is a post advising that including the definite article in any case of doubt will make you correct 99% of the time; apparently this sentence is in the remaing 1%! But I cannot extract any rule which would help me elsewhere...