Can someone let me know if I've got this right? So, if i wanted to express that the museum is closed permanantly, I would say "el museo ES cerrado." And if the museum is just closed for the night (but will reopen next business day) i would say "el museo ESTÁ cerrado." Is this correct???
Not exactly. "El museo está cerrado" is referring to a state of the museum, which could be overnight or long term. "Es" refers to characteristics, so the museum would have to be a closed kind of place, maybe closed to the public or something. Search for "DOCTOR PLACE" for a full list of uses for Ser & Estar.
I think the use of "ser" with "cerrado", could mean "closed-mind" for a person, or a thing:
Estas sociedades son cerradas.
And also the night is dark = la noche es cerrada.
"cerrado/cerrada" has several figurative meanings (to be figuratively "closed") with "ser". And a real meaning with "estar".
Enclosed is here:
Do you mean you typed "El museo está cerrado", and you have been corrected with the exact same thing? It happens when the instructions were to translate the other way (in Spanish), and they give the English translation as an info. So, did you check the given instructions?
The simplest way I remember is that 'Es' is used for permanent situations where as 'Esta' is used for temporary situations. 'Eso es un perro':'That is a dog' this is permanent because it will always be a dog, the state of being a dog will not change. 'Tu tren está aquí':'Your train is here', this is temporary because the train will not always be here. It will eventually move.
Yes, but add this:
Estar is auxiliary verb used with the past participles (like "done" in English, and here, "cerrado" in Spanish)
The state being permanent or not, it's always the same auxiliary:
Estar +... ado/ada.
It is the case when it's a binary state. Being closed/open, for instance, rather than "permanent/not permanent".
When it's a person characteristic, we have to use "ser cerrada". I've found examples here: https://www.spanishdict.com/translate/cerrado
For instance, you are closed-minded: characteristic (like being a man, being intelligent, etc): ser cerrado.
's can be 2 things in English:
The contracted form for "is".
So, you can use it whenever "is" is used.
The student is clever = The student's clever.
It can be a mark of the possession. After a noun.
My name is Satia, and I have a cat.
Look! It's Satia's cat!
Template: Owner's thing.
Meaning the thing of "Owner".
You can attach it to a pronoun (he, she, it) to indicate "is": "it
's closed"; "he
's here"; "she
's asleep". It can also be attached to question words, like "where": "Where
's the museum?"
If you attach it to a noun, Duolingo will read it as a possessive form (as in The museum
's door is pink), and so will likely mark your answer wrong if you write it as "The museum
JJgq, Duolingo is following two rules when deciding whether it lets a spelling error pass or not. If you make a mistake, it will be counted as wrong if:
- the misspelling is more than one letter off from the original word or
- the misspelling forms a different valid word.
So if instead of cerrado you write "cerado", it'll be accepted. If you write "cerroda", it won't be accepted since more than one letter is different. And if you write serrado, it will likely not be accepted either since it's a different Spanish word (meaning "sawed", from serrar, "to saw").
Yes. It's always "estar + .... ado/ada".
Even for things that are permanent.
Estar is the auxiliary used with past participles (like in English "done",or in Spanish "cerrado")
It's used when you have a binary state closed/open (permanent or not)
but not when it's considered a characteristics, like being intelligent, or closed-minded (ser cerrado).
There are three consonant doublings that you'll encounter in Spanish: the digraphs 'rr' and 'll', and the more random combination 'cc'.
The digraph 'rr' always appears between two vowels and it produces a different sound than a single 'r' would in the same spot. The doubled 'rr' forces a trilled 'r' sound (IPA: [r]), while a single 'r' between two vowels is pronounced as a tap-'r' [ɾ]. On the technical side, with 'rr' your tongue tip vibrates against the roof of your mouth, and with 'r' it flicks only once.
It occasionally makes a difference whether you use a single 'r' or a doubled 'rr':
- pero - but | perro - dog
- caro - expensive | carro - cart, car
The digraph 'll' can produce a variety of sounds, originally it was a palatalised 'l' sound [ʎ] (an 'l' pronounced with the centre of your tongue pressed against your palate), but in most modern dialects it makes the same sound as the Spanish 'y'. A single 'l' is a normal [l] sound (but unlike most English 'l' variants, it's not velarised, i.e. the base of your tongue is not raised).
The letter combination 'cc' happens only as 'cce' and 'cci'. This combination is allowed because both 'c's are pronounced differently. The first makes a [k] sound, and the second a [s] or [θ] (voiceless 'th' sound as in English "thunder"), depending on which side of the ocean you are. (Parallel to that, the combinations 'gge' and 'ggi' are also possible, but I don't think any Spanish word uses them. The first 'g' would be a normal hard 'g', and the second would match the Spanish 'j' sound.)
All other consonant doublings are not allowed in Spanish since they wouldn't make a different sound than the single variants. In Spanish, form follows function, meaning the pronunciation determines how something is spelt. That's why, for example, tocar (to touch) becomes toqué in the preterite (I touched). You have to keep the [k] sound intact, which is realised with 'c' before 'a', and 'qu' before 'e'.