Use of ''Meiner'' in sentences and how it works
was just wondering the use of ''meiner'' in replacing mein or meine. i know mein is masc and meine is fem, but not sure the use of just ''meiner''. i do frequently see it used as ''meiner schwester'' in sentences though. can someone please explain this to me.
Well, you can use "meiner" not not only for a dative or genitive case.
Ich gebe das Buch meiner Schwester.
Das ist das Buch meiner Mutter.
You would use it after a question too.
A: Wem gehört der Hund?
B: Das ist meiner!
All pronouns adapt to the cases in which the nouns they are referring to are placed.
A: Ich habe einen Ball und du?
B: Meiner ist kaputt.
Why isn't it something like "Ich gebe das Buch zu meiner Schwester"? Just trying to understand.
Well, you could say it like this but then you would only say you bring it to (maybe) her home. Like you want to tell someone: I will take the book to her..
If you say: "Ich gebe das Buch meiner Schwester" you want to hand it over to her.
No, you really WOULDN'T (couldn't, shouldn't) say it like that. In German, you don't give a book TO someone but you 'give a book someone' (the 'to' is not needed or translated from English to German and the 'directional' is already included in the word order of subject TO object). Thus, in (high/ written) German you would say 'Ich gebe das Buch meiner Schwester' rather than 'Ich gebe das Buch zu meiner Schwester'. That is different for 'bringen' -- for the word 'bring', you can either bring something someone or bring something TO someone in German.