1.) Can someone clarify as simply the relationship between what is possessed, and the possessor?
2.) What is causing the change of article regarding the owner? - Is it themselves or what they own?
Hier siehst du das Fahrrad meines Vaters Here is my attempt - please correct and explain if there are glaring errors.
3.) What about a sentence like:
'I have taken your time, and feel no remorse' - how can you correctly state the genitive of 'your time', when there is no other noun to show possession?
Dein-(ending) Zeit Ich habe (my issue is 'your time') genommen ...
TANKS! (Thanks!) (Danke!)
The use of possessive pronouns is similar like the English ones are used.
Ich - mein, du - dein, er - sein, sie - ihr, es - sein, wir - unser, ihr - euer, sie - ihr
However, the endings depend on the according noun and in which case the nouns are said and, of course, their gender.
Mein Hund steht in unserem Garten. Deine Katze sitzt auf ihrer Bank.
Your sentence: I have taken your time and feel no remorse would be best translated as: Ich habe deine Zeit in Anspruch genommen. Oder: Ich habe eure Zeit in Anspruch genommen. Oder: Ich habe Ihre Zeit in Anspruch genommen.
The Genitive is used to express the possessive between two nouns. "The X of the Y". But German can omit the "of".
das Fahrrad meines Vaters (the bicycle of my father)
eine Freundin deiner Mutter (a friend of your mother)
die Garnierungen dieser Pizza (the toppings of this pizza)
das Spiel der Throne (the game of thrones)
The article of the thing that is possessed changes from the usual nominative der/die/das/die to the genitive (des/der/des/der).
The owner thing keeps its appropriate article for its case (nominative, accusative, or dative).