"Caliente" is used for things, including beverages. "Caluroso" is for weather. There's more, of course. If you're interested:
Typically, but not always: caliente is hot (not spicy) food or drink, also can be physical/bedroom use with the right context. Picante is spicy food or drink. Caluroso/a is all other hot things/things that make you hot, besides weather or people/animals. So coats, blankets, the sun, the sidewalk, the day, the summer, etc., are all caluroso/a. Hace calor is hot weather, tengo calor is 'I'm hot,' 'el perro tiene calor' is the dog is hot, etc.
"Caluroso/calurosa" is equivalent to french "chaleureux/chaleureuse", on the other hand "caliente" is equivalent to "chaud/chaude".
For instance you can say :
Una familia calurosa(a loving family). Una casa calurosa(a warm home). Una bienvenida calurosa(a warm/loving welcome).
Una taza caliente(a hot cup). Un plato caliente(a hot plate).