"He'So'mo' paSloghDaj luvaq."
Translation:Because her socks stink, they mock her.
Could this also be "they mock her socks, because they stink"? That's rather a different meaning.
Yes, it could be.
If we add a comma, it could be:
He'So'mo', paSloghDaj luvaq. "They mock her socks, because they stink / she stinks / he stinks / it stinks."
He'So'mo' paSloghDaj, luvaq. "They mock him / her / it, because her socks stink." (And the "it" could be "them = her socks", which are grammatically singular in Klingon, as far as we know.)
It is a wonderful convenience that Klingon has adopted the Federation Standard comma.
When writing in left-to-right alphabetic pIqaD, there is point down triangle that is sometimes used as a seperator for situations like this. Klingon writers do not seem to be consistent in it's use. It seems to be more a convenience for clarification than a required grammatical marker. Federation linguists who write using a Roman transcription system tend to use a comma to function in the same way as this triangle.
This makes a great deal of sense. The comma as we use it now only comes with printing, but it has been adopted into a wide variety of other writing systems. Other breathing marks were used before commas, but their use varied wildly, even when used by the same writer.