https://www.duolingo.com/Robert7221102

Loanwords vs Cognates

  1. What is the difference between loanwords and cognates?
  2. I've gathered loanwords here (https://leanpub.com/loanword/), anyone know any loanwords that I am missing?
8 months ago

8 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Shady_arc
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Cognates are words that have the same origin, like колесо and wheel or изумруд and emerald (borrowed a long time ago from the same source).

A loanword is taken directly from one language into another. For example, English "sushi" is not cognate with Japanese すし —it is rather a direct borrowing. Russian компьютер is exactly the English "computer" (which is, of course, based on the French root, but Russian did not borrow it from French). Флешка "thumbstick" is borrowed from the English "flash" and then decorated with a Russian suffix.

The difference is that borrowing the word is assymmetrical: one language does all the job and then another just takes it.

Oftentimes, cognates do not look like each other if you take distant but related languages. Loanwords, however, usually look very similar. An extremely old loanword might be an exception. For example, Russian хлеб was likely a Gothic loanword or a loanword taken from another Germanic language; the word does not look a lot like "Laib" and "loaf", even though at the time it was borrowed you could still see the resemblance.

8 months ago

[deactivated user]

    \2. I've gathered loanwords here (https://leanpub.com/loanword/),

    The image is misleading. Дог is not just any dog, it only refers to some breeds of dogs (such as Great Dane). The dog at your picture is not a дог.

    Roughly speaking:

    • dog = собака, пёс,
    • дог ≈ mastiff-type dog.
    8 months ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/Robert7221102

    Thanks, I changed the name of the book.

    8 months ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/EffieEaston
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    https://www.evaeaston.com/rel/rel1.html

    My research paper has a lot of information that might be of interest to you, including 1) history of language contact between Russian and English, as well as 2) similarity of word formation patterns.

    Loanword: When the borrowing is a lexical unit, it is called a loanword. Heien (1984, p. 84) defines them as "words whose common feature is lack of a Russian root."...Usually loanwords adjust their external form to the rules of grammar and phonetics of the receiving language; otherwise they are generally considered foreign words.

    Foreign Word: Linguists generally define foreign words as words whose external form preserves the spelling of the source language, or words whose foreign origin is still felt by speakers of the borrowing language, as in "kimono." However,...Lexicologists themselves don't always agree into which category to place a lexical item.

    False Cognate: Russians call them false friends.. These are words with the same or similiar forms in two languages, but with a different meaning. Russian "magazin" actually means store, as in Macy's; the Russian word for magazine is "zhurnal."

    8 months ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/zirkul
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    False Cognate: Russians call them false friends.. These are words with the same or similiar forms in two languages, but with a different meaning. Russian "magazin" actually means store, as in Macy's; the Russian word for magazine is "zhurnal."

    Firstly, false cognates and false friends are not the same thing: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False_cognate

    In fact, your example of Russian "магазин" is misleading: it's neither a false cognate (because of a different meaning) nor a proper false friend of English "magazine" (since the two words have different etymology).

    Russian "магазин" did not originate from either English or French "magazine" - it originated from French "magasin" (meaning "depot" or "store") instead, and as such is a perfect example of a loan word. What makes it seem like a false friend to an English speaker is the ignorance of the difference between these French words (I am not using the word "ignorance" pejoratively here) -- it's the same ignorance that resulted in the English use of "magazine" in reference to firearms (e.g., a rifle magazine) - which actually also came from French "magasin", not "magazine", and as such may be an example of a false cognate, but in English, not Russian.

    8 months ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/EffieEaston
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    https://www.evaeaston.com/rel/rel1.html

    The second section follows the Russian language through its history, showing language contacts between Russian and other languages, contacts which have resulted in mutually recognizable lexical items in Russian and English.

    Section three outlines the history of language contacts through lists of words which came into the Russian language from foreign sources at specific times in the history of the language.

    The fourth section offers...four tables: (1) foreign affixes (prefixes and suffixes) used by both languages; (2) basic phonological substitutions between Russian and English, as reflected in orthography; (3) a list of indeclinable nouns; and (4) a list of words with double consonants.

    8 months ago

    https://www.duolingo.com/Robert7221102

    So what should I title the book?

    8 months ago
    Learn Russian in just 5 minutes a day. For free.